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Gärningsbeskrivningens funktion i brottmålsprocessen - En studie om hur beviskravet, rättssäkerhetsintresset och effektivitetsintresset i brottmålsprocessen påverkas av gärningsbeskrivningens precision och utformande

Ingvert, Elin LU (2017) JURM02 20171
Department of Law
Abstract
This thesis examines how the evidential requirement is influenced in the indictment of murder and rape if there is vagueness in the prosecutor's statement of the criminal act as charged. The study also assesses the conflict of interest between the accused's legal certainty of the rule of law and the effectiveness in the application of the law. Vagueness is considered necessary in some cases, in order to achieve prosecution of certain crimes. This is especially the case when domestic rape has been repeatedly committed over a long period of time. Then it may be difficult for the victim to specify a precise course of events with, for example, specified time, with the result that the prosecutor cannot specify these details. That vagueness is... (More)
This thesis examines how the evidential requirement is influenced in the indictment of murder and rape if there is vagueness in the prosecutor's statement of the criminal act as charged. The study also assesses the conflict of interest between the accused's legal certainty of the rule of law and the effectiveness in the application of the law. Vagueness is considered necessary in some cases, in order to achieve prosecution of certain crimes. This is especially the case when domestic rape has been repeatedly committed over a long period of time. Then it may be difficult for the victim to specify a precise course of events with, for example, specified time, with the result that the prosecutor cannot specify these details. That vagueness is accepted, such as when the alleged crime is reported to have been committed sometime within a year, affects the defendant’s ability to defend himself against the accusation.

The defendant has, according to article 6.3 a.) and b.) of the European Convention, a right to detailed information without delay, in a language that the defendant understands, regarding the nature and cause of the accusation against him. Additionally, the defendant has the right to sufficient time and opportunity to prepare his defence. Even the code of judicial procedure imposes a demand on the statement of the criminal act as charged. For example, according to chapter 45, article 4, paragraph 1, clause 3 of the code of judicial procedure, the criminal act must be stated by the prosecutor, indicating the time and place of the offense as well as other circumstances necessary for the characterisation of the crime.

It has emerged in this paper that vagueness is more widely accepted in rape indictments compared with murder indictments. The greater the vagueness that is accepted and the less the vagueness is taken into account by the court, the greater the risk that the vagueness will affect the evidentiary requirement. In practice, this means that the crossbar for what is to be proven is lower than the stated evidentiary requirement, which is that it must be shown that it is beyond reasonable doubt that the defendant has committed the crim. The fact that vagueness is allowed in the statement of the criminal act as charged means that the presenting and testing of alternative hypotheses is impaired and prevented. It is of great importance that alternative hypotheses are tested against the theme of proof to establish that what has been identified by the prosecutor in the statement of the criminal act as charged has been proven beyond reasonable doubt. If the court is overhasty, and finds the evidentiary requirement reached too early in the procedure, it leaves the defendant forced to actively prove his innocence earlier than what is customary. This implies a reversal of the burden of proof, making it easier for the prosecutor to get a conviction and more difficult for the defendant to defend himself.

The study has also shown that scholars use a number of different expressions for the requirements that need to be fulfilled in the statement of the criminal act as charged. It gives an ambiguous picture of the requirements that are deemed called for to describe the offense and the reasons why they are considered necessary are unclear. In order to balance the interests for rule of law and efficiency, as well as to follow the principle that similar cases should be treated in a similar way, this area requires a more thoughtful and uniform conceptual framework. (Less)
Abstract (Swedish)
I denna framställning utreds hur beviskravet påverkas av att åklagarens gärningsbeskrivning innehåller vagheter i prövningen vid mordåtal och våldtäktsåtal. I studien undersöks även intressekonflikten mellan den tilltalades rättssäkerhetsintresse och effektivitetsintresset i strafftillämningen. Vagheter anses i någon mån behövlig i gärningsbeskrivningen för att kunna få till stånd ett åtal för vissa brott. Framförallt när våldtäkter inom nära relation förövats vid flertalet tillfällen under en längre period kan det vara svårt för målsäganden att precisera ett exakt händelseförlopp med exempelvis exakt tidsprecisering. Därav blir det även svårt för åklagaren att precisera uppgifter likt dessa närmare i gärningsbeskrivningen. Att vagheter... (More)
I denna framställning utreds hur beviskravet påverkas av att åklagarens gärningsbeskrivning innehåller vagheter i prövningen vid mordåtal och våldtäktsåtal. I studien undersöks även intressekonflikten mellan den tilltalades rättssäkerhetsintresse och effektivitetsintresset i strafftillämningen. Vagheter anses i någon mån behövlig i gärningsbeskrivningen för att kunna få till stånd ett åtal för vissa brott. Framförallt när våldtäkter inom nära relation förövats vid flertalet tillfällen under en längre period kan det vara svårt för målsäganden att precisera ett exakt händelseförlopp med exempelvis exakt tidsprecisering. Därav blir det även svårt för åklagaren att precisera uppgifter likt dessa närmare i gärningsbeskrivningen. Att vagheter tillåts i gärningsbeskrivningen, exempelvis att brottstiden för det påstådda brottet uppges ha skett någon gång under ett år, påverkar den tilltalades möjlighet att försvara sig mot anklagelsen.

Den tilltalade har enligt Europakonventionens artikel 6.3 a.) och b.) rätt till att utan dröjsmål och på ett språk som den tilltalade förstår få en detaljerad underrättelse om brottsanklagelsen. Den tilltalade har också rätt att få tillräcklig tid och möjlighet till förberedandet av sitt försvar. Även rättegångsbalken uppställer krav på gärningsbeskrivningen, exempelvis ska den brottsliga gärningen anges av åklagaren med uppgift om tiden och platsen för förövandet liksom de övriga omständigheter som behövs för brottets kännetecknande enligt 45:4 1 st. 3 p rättegångsbalken.

Det som framkommit i denna framställning är att vagheter i större mån accepteras i de studerade våldtäktsåtalen jämfört med de studerade mordåtalen. Desto större vaghet som accepteras och desto mindre denna vaghet tillmäts betydelse eller beaktas av rätten, ju mer riskerar vagheten att påverka beviskravet som i praktiken medför att ribban för vad som ska bevisas ligger lägre än det uttalade beviskravet, att gärningspåståendet ska vara ställt utom rimligt tvivel. Att vagheter tillåts i en gärningsbeskrivning medför att uppställandet och prövandet av alternativa hypoteser försämras och förhindras. Det är av stor vikt att alternativa hypoteser prövas gentemot bevistemat för att man ska komma fram till att det är ställt utom rimligt tvivel att det gått till så som åklagaren påstått i gärningsbeskrivningen. Om rätten förhastat, i ett i praktiken för tidigt skede framkommer till att beviskravet är uppnått så tvingas den tilltalade att aktivt bevisa sin oskuld i ett för tidigt skede. Detta innebär i en omkastning av den avsedda placeringen av bevisbördan som gör det enklare för åklagaren att få den tilltalade fälld och svårare för den tilltalade att försvara sig.

Gärningsbeskrivningen sätter ramen för prövningen och därav finns anledning att fästa vikt vid att de krav som uppställs på denna ram är balanserat mellan de båda intressena rättssäkerhet och effektivitet. Studien har visat att författare i doktrin använder ett antal olika uttryck för de krav som uppställs på gärningsbeskrivningen. Bilden av vilka krav som anses påkallade att ställa på gärningsbeskrivningen och varför dessa anses behövliga är otydlig. För att enklare kunna balansera rättssäkerhetsintresset och effektivitetsintresset i görligaste mån och för att lika fall ska behandlas lika efterfrågas en mer genomtänkt och enhetlig begreppsanvändning på området. (Less)
Please use this url to cite or link to this publication:
author
Ingvert, Elin LU
supervisor
organization
alternative title
The function of the statement of the criminal act as charged in the criminal case action - A study on how the evidence requirement, the rule of law and the interests of the effectiveness of the criminal proceedings are influenced by the precision and design of the statement of the criminal act as charged
course
JURM02 20171
year
type
H3 - Professional qualifications (4 Years - )
subject
keywords
straffrätt
language
Swedish
id
8908224
date added to LUP
2017-06-09 10:00:23
date last changed
2017-06-09 10:00:23
@misc{8908224,
  abstract     = {This thesis examines how the evidential requirement is influenced in the indictment of murder and rape if there is vagueness in the prosecutor's statement of the criminal act as charged. The study also assesses the conflict of interest between the accused's legal certainty of the rule of law and the effectiveness in the application of the law. Vagueness is considered necessary in some cases, in order to achieve prosecution of certain crimes. This is especially the case when domestic rape has been repeatedly committed over a long period of time. Then it may be difficult for the victim to specify a precise course of events with, for example, specified time, with the result that the prosecutor cannot specify these details. That vagueness is accepted, such as when the alleged crime is reported to have been committed sometime within a year, affects the defendant’s ability to defend himself against the accusation.
 
The defendant has, according to article 6.3 a.) and b.) of the European Convention, a right to detailed information without delay, in a language that the defendant understands, regarding the nature and cause of the accusation against him. Additionally, the defendant has the right to sufficient time and opportunity to prepare his defence. Even the code of judicial procedure imposes a demand on the statement of the criminal act as charged. For example, according to chapter 45, article 4, paragraph 1, clause 3 of the code of judicial procedure, the criminal act must be stated by the prosecutor, indicating the time and place of the offense as well as other circumstances necessary for the characterisation of the crime.
 
It has emerged in this paper that vagueness is more widely accepted in rape indictments compared with murder indictments. The greater the vagueness that is accepted and the less the vagueness is taken into account by the court, the greater the risk that the vagueness will affect the evidentiary requirement. In practice, this means that the crossbar for what is to be proven is lower than the stated evidentiary requirement, which is that it must be shown that it is beyond reasonable doubt that the defendant has committed the crim. The fact that vagueness is allowed in the statement of the criminal act as charged means that the presenting and testing of alternative hypotheses is impaired and prevented. It is of great importance that alternative hypotheses are tested against the theme of proof to establish that what has been identified by the prosecutor in the statement of the criminal act as charged has been proven beyond reasonable doubt. If the court is overhasty, and finds the evidentiary requirement reached too early in the procedure, it leaves the defendant forced to actively prove his innocence earlier than what is customary. This implies a reversal of the burden of proof, making it easier for the prosecutor to get a conviction and more difficult for the defendant to defend himself.
 
The study has also shown that scholars use a number of different expressions for the requirements that need to be fulfilled in the statement of the criminal act as charged. It gives an ambiguous picture of the requirements that are deemed called for to describe the offense and the reasons why they are considered necessary are unclear. In order to balance the interests for rule of law and efficiency, as well as to follow the principle that similar cases should be treated in a similar way, this area requires a more thoughtful and uniform conceptual framework.},
  author       = {Ingvert, Elin},
  keyword      = {straffrätt},
  language     = {swe},
  note         = {Student Paper},
  title        = {Gärningsbeskrivningens funktion i brottmålsprocessen - En studie om hur beviskravet, rättssäkerhetsintresset och effektivitetsintresset i brottmålsprocessen påverkas av gärningsbeskrivningens precision och utformande},
  year         = {2017},
}