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Människosmuggling av humanitära skäl - En kriminalisering av individers medmänsklighet?

Adolfsson, Amanda LU (2017) LAGF03 20171
Department of Law
Faculty of Law
Abstract (Swedish)
I 20 kap. 8 § Utlänningslagen (2005:716) stadgas brottet människosmuggling. Syftet med bestämmelsen är att förhindra hjälp till olaglig inresa, vilket kan resultera i att den reglerade invandringen blir svår att upprätthålla. Idag råder det stor orolighet i världen och allt fler människor väljer att fly från sina hem. Det har gjort att människosmugglingen ökat drastiskt de senaste åren, men även fallen där privatpersoner hjälpt enskilda flyktingar till Sverige har ökat.

I rådets direktiv 2002/90/EG lämnas ett utrymme för EU:s medlemsstater att undanta ideella gärningar från bestämmelsens kriminaliserade område, den så kallade humanitära klausulen. Det innebär att det i teorin finns en möjlighet till ett humanitärt undantag från... (More)
I 20 kap. 8 § Utlänningslagen (2005:716) stadgas brottet människosmuggling. Syftet med bestämmelsen är att förhindra hjälp till olaglig inresa, vilket kan resultera i att den reglerade invandringen blir svår att upprätthålla. Idag råder det stor orolighet i världen och allt fler människor väljer att fly från sina hem. Det har gjort att människosmugglingen ökat drastiskt de senaste åren, men även fallen där privatpersoner hjälpt enskilda flyktingar till Sverige har ökat.

I rådets direktiv 2002/90/EG lämnas ett utrymme för EU:s medlemsstater att undanta ideella gärningar från bestämmelsens kriminaliserade område, den så kallade humanitära klausulen. Det innebär att det i teorin finns en möjlighet till ett humanitärt undantag från bestämmelsen om människosmuggling. I Sverige valde lagstiftaren att inte lagstadga ett humanitärt undantag, däremot lämnades ett utrymme för rättstillämparen att utveckla ett sådant. När man analyserar hur domstolen resonerat kring ett humanitärt undantag kan främst två hinder utläsas, Dublinförordningen och Schengensamarbetet. Hur dessa påverkar ett humanitärt undantag kommer framgå längre fram i arbetet, men man kan i alla fall dra slutsatsen att utrymmet för ett humanitärt undantag är mycket begränsat.

Därmed blir det även intressant att utröna vilken möjlighet rättstillämparen ändå har att beakta den bakomliggande humaniteten i gärningen. Det som då faller naturligt är att rubricera gärningen som ringa människosmuggling, men inte heller denna bedömning är helt problemfri. Det gör att man kan ställa sig frågan om dagens reglering om människosmuggling kriminaliserar medmänsklighet och humanitära handlingar. Då det i nuläget är enorma mängder människor på flykt kan man verkligen ifrågasätta om det inte borde finnas en reell möjlighet till att hjälpa enstaka människor till Sverige, vars syfte är att söka asyl, utan att begå ett brott. (Less)
Abstract
Chapter 20 § 8 of the Swedish Aliens Act (2005:716) states that human smuggling is a crime. The purpose of the provision is to prevent assistance for unauthorized entry, which otherwise would make it difficult to maintain a regulated immigration in Sweden. The number of people choosing to leave their homes because of conflicts, poverty and underdevelopment is increasing. This has resulted in drastically escalated human smuggling, mostly organized by criminals, but there has also been an increase of cases where individuals provide humanitarian assistance to refugees.

The European Council Directive 2002/90/EC leaves an opening for the member states of the EU to exclude cases where the aim of the behaviour is to provide humanitarian... (More)
Chapter 20 § 8 of the Swedish Aliens Act (2005:716) states that human smuggling is a crime. The purpose of the provision is to prevent assistance for unauthorized entry, which otherwise would make it difficult to maintain a regulated immigration in Sweden. The number of people choosing to leave their homes because of conflicts, poverty and underdevelopment is increasing. This has resulted in drastically escalated human smuggling, mostly organized by criminals, but there has also been an increase of cases where individuals provide humanitarian assistance to refugees.

The European Council Directive 2002/90/EC leaves an opening for the member states of the EU to exclude cases where the aim of the behaviour is to provide humanitarian assistance to the person concerned, the so-called humanitarian clause. Theoretically this opens up for an opportunity to make an exception in the regulation of human smuggling. The Swedish legislators have chosen not to legislate the humanitarian exception into Swedish law. However the court can develop it when they apply the law to actual cases. When analysing how the court has reasoned on the humanitarian exception, two main obstacles can be deduced, the Dublin Regulation and the Schengen cooperation. How these two influence the humanitarian exception will be shown further along in the essay, however the conclusion is that the scope for the exception is highly limited.

Due to this conclusion it is also of importance to determine in which extent the humanity of an act can be taken into account by the courts. The possibility to classify the offence as minor is one way to take the humanity of the act into consideration, but the courts have restricted the possibility by making it applicable only to people who have helped their relatives come to Sweden. This causes issues though and brings us to ask the question of whether the Swedish regulation criminalizes compassion and acts with a humanitarian aim. Since there currently are large numbers of people escaping conflicts, one can wonder if it would not be reasonable for there to exist a possibility to help occasional cases of people who come to Sweden with the pure intention of seeking asylum, without committing a crime (Less)
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@misc{8908294,
  abstract     = {Chapter 20 § 8 of the Swedish Aliens Act (2005:716) states that human smuggling is a crime. The purpose of the provision is to prevent assistance for unauthorized entry, which otherwise would make it difficult to maintain a regulated immigration in Sweden. The number of people choosing to leave their homes because of conflicts, poverty and underdevelopment is increasing. This has resulted in drastically escalated human smuggling, mostly organized by criminals, but there has also been an increase of cases where individuals provide humanitarian assistance to refugees. 

The European Council Directive 2002/90/EC leaves an opening for the member states of the EU to exclude cases where the aim of the behaviour is to provide humanitarian assistance to the person concerned, the so-called humanitarian clause. Theoretically this opens up for an opportunity to make an exception in the regulation of human smuggling. The Swedish legislators have chosen not to legislate the humanitarian exception into Swedish law. However the court can develop it when they apply the law to actual cases. When analysing how the court has reasoned on the humanitarian exception, two main obstacles can be deduced, the Dublin Regulation and the Schengen cooperation. How these two influence the humanitarian exception will be shown further along in the essay, however the conclusion is that the scope for the exception is highly limited. 

Due to this conclusion it is also of importance to determine in which extent the humanity of an act can be taken into account by the courts. The possibility to classify the offence as minor is one way to take the humanity of the act into consideration, but the courts have restricted the possibility by making it applicable only to people who have helped their relatives come to Sweden. This causes issues though and brings us to ask the question of whether the Swedish regulation criminalizes compassion and acts with a humanitarian aim. Since there currently are large numbers of people escaping conflicts, one can wonder if it would not be reasonable for there to exist a possibility to help occasional cases of people who come to Sweden with the pure intention of seeking asylum, without committing a crime},
  author       = {Adolfsson, Amanda},
  keyword      = {allmän rättslära,arbetsrätt,associationsrätt,avtalsrätt,bankrätt,boenderätt,civilrätt,EU-rätt,familjerätt,fastighetsrätt,finansrätt,folkrätt,företagsekonomi,förmögenhetsrätt,försäkringsrätt,förvaltningsrätt,immaterialrätt,internationell privaträtt,IT-rätt,komparativ rätt,konkurrensrätt,processrätt,rättsekonomi,rättshistoria,rättssociologi,rättsvetenskap,sakrätt,sjörätt,skadeståndsrätt,skatterätt,socialrätt,statsrätt,straffrätt,transporträtt,utrikesrätt},
  language     = {swe},
  note         = {Student Paper},
  title        = {Människosmuggling av humanitära skäl - En kriminalisering av individers medmänsklighet?},
  year         = {2017},
}