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Aberratio ictus - Gärningsmannens uppsåt i förhållande till brottsobjektets identitet

Langborg, Oskar LU (2017) LAGF03 20171
Department of Law
Faculty of Law
Abstract
The general purpose of the essay is to define and to explain the phenomenon referred to as aberratio ictus, both theoretically and practically. In addition to this, the essay attempts to present potential solutions to the problem and to establish how the law is currently applied in regard to this matter, in Sweden.
Aberratio ictus pertains to situations where the perpetrator’s intent was to attack a specific person, but where he failed to do so and accidently struck a different victim. This situation must not be confused with error in persona.
The main rule in Swedish criminal law is that crime requires intent. As well as explicitly expressed in law this has been further developed through judicial practice.
There are mainly two... (More)
The general purpose of the essay is to define and to explain the phenomenon referred to as aberratio ictus, both theoretically and practically. In addition to this, the essay attempts to present potential solutions to the problem and to establish how the law is currently applied in regard to this matter, in Sweden.
Aberratio ictus pertains to situations where the perpetrator’s intent was to attack a specific person, but where he failed to do so and accidently struck a different victim. This situation must not be confused with error in persona.
The main rule in Swedish criminal law is that crime requires intent. As well as explicitly expressed in law this has been further developed through judicial practice.
There are mainly two different models applicable to this phenomenon, according to judicial practice and doctrine. The first one is referred to as transferred intent, and advocates for the perpetrator to be convicted for murder, despite shooting someone towards whom he had no malice. The reasoning behind this is that both the intended victim and the actual victim are viewed as equally worthy of protection. The second model, directly translated to the speciality model, takes the perpertrator’s specific intent into account, and suggests he be convicted for both attempted murder as well as causing another’s death.
The Supreme Court of Sweden has yet to judge in a case of aberratio ictus. Thus, no one can say with certainty how a ruling in such a matter would be. There are however previous cases from the Swedish court of appeal, and the general consensus from these verdicts has been that the model of transferred intent has had to give way for the speciality model.
To the extent that aberratio ictus has been discussed in doctrine both models have sympathisers, but many authors remain indecisive, claiming both models to have their pros and cons. Some of these authors have presented their own alternative models as solutions to the problem that comes with aberratio ictus. (Less)
Abstract (Swedish)
Det övergripande syftet med uppsatsen är att definiera och förklara fenomenet aberratio ictus, såväl i teorin som i praktiken, och vidare klargöra hur gällande rätt i Sverige ser ut, samt redovisa vilka lösningsmodeller som används eller förespråkas idag.
Aberratio ictus avser situationer där gärningsmannens uppsåt är att angripa en specifik person men där denne råkar träffa en annan person vid utövandet av detta angrepp. Det avgörande är gärningsmannens uppsåt i gärningsögonblicket. Aberratio ictus måste tydligt avgränsas från error in persona, eftersom dessa situationer lätt förväxlas.
Utgångspunkten i svensk straffrätt är att brott förutsätter uppsåt, d.v.s. att gärningen begås uppsåtligen. Detta följer av lagstiftning och har... (More)
Det övergripande syftet med uppsatsen är att definiera och förklara fenomenet aberratio ictus, såväl i teorin som i praktiken, och vidare klargöra hur gällande rätt i Sverige ser ut, samt redovisa vilka lösningsmodeller som används eller förespråkas idag.
Aberratio ictus avser situationer där gärningsmannens uppsåt är att angripa en specifik person men där denne råkar träffa en annan person vid utövandet av detta angrepp. Det avgörande är gärningsmannens uppsåt i gärningsögonblicket. Aberratio ictus måste tydligt avgränsas från error in persona, eftersom dessa situationer lätt förväxlas.
Utgångspunkten i svensk straffrätt är att brott förutsätter uppsåt, d.v.s. att gärningen begås uppsåtligen. Detta följer av lagstiftning och har sedan utformats ytterligare genom praxis.
Det finns i praktiken flera alternativa sätt att hantera aberratio ictus på, men det är framförallt två modeller som återkommer i praxis och doktrin – ekvivalensmodellen respektive specialitetsmodellen.
Ekvivalensmodellen förespråkar att gärningsmannen ska dömas för mord även om denne egentligen siktat på en annan person än den som dödats, eftersom brottsobjekten anses vara ekvivalent skyddsvärda. Enligt specialitetsmodellen bör gärningsmannen istället dömas för det uppsåtliga brottet, vilket i motsvarande fall är försök till mord på den person som gärningsmannen missat, och dessutom för vållande till annans död eftersom en person faktiskt dödats på grund av gärningsmannens handlande.
Högsta domstolen har ännu inte behandlat någon situation likt denna, varför rättsläget får anses vara oklart. Det finns en del praxis från lägre instanser och där kan det generellt sägas att specialitetsmodellen givits visst företräde framför ekvivalensmodellen.
I den mån ämnet har diskuterats i doktrin har båda modellerna anhängare, men flera författare ser både för- och nackdelar med bägge, och vissa har även lyft fram andra förslag som alternativ till de båda modellerna. (Less)
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author
Langborg, Oskar LU
supervisor
organization
course
LAGF03 20171
year
type
M2 - Bachelor Degree
subject
keywords
straffrätt
language
Swedish
id
8908380
date added to LUP
2017-06-30 12:57:49
date last changed
2017-06-30 12:57:49
@misc{8908380,
  abstract     = {The general purpose of the essay is to define and to explain the phenomenon referred to as aberratio ictus, both theoretically and practically. In addition to this, the essay attempts to present potential solutions to the problem and to establish how the law is currently applied in regard to this matter, in Sweden.
 Aberratio ictus pertains to situations where the perpetrator’s intent was to attack a specific person, but where he failed to do so and accidently struck a different victim. This situation must not be confused with error in persona. 
 The main rule in Swedish criminal law is that crime requires intent. As well as explicitly expressed in law this has been further developed through judicial practice.
 There are mainly two different models applicable to this phenomenon, according to judicial practice and doctrine. The first one is referred to as transferred intent, and advocates for the perpetrator to be convicted for murder, despite shooting someone towards whom he had no malice. The reasoning behind this is that both the intended victim and the actual victim are viewed as equally worthy of protection. The second model, directly translated to the speciality model, takes the perpertrator’s specific intent into account, and suggests he be convicted for both attempted murder as well as causing another’s death. 
 The Supreme Court of Sweden has yet to judge in a case of aberratio ictus. Thus, no one can say with certainty how a ruling in such a matter would be. There are however previous cases from the Swedish court of appeal, and the general consensus from these verdicts has been that the model of transferred intent has had to give way for the speciality model. 
 To the extent that aberratio ictus has been discussed in doctrine both models have sympathisers, but many authors remain indecisive, claiming both models to have their pros and cons. Some of these authors have presented their own alternative models as solutions to the problem that comes with aberratio ictus.},
  author       = {Langborg, Oskar},
  keyword      = {straffrätt},
  language     = {swe},
  note         = {Student Paper},
  title        = {Aberratio ictus - Gärningsmannens uppsåt i förhållande till brottsobjektets identitet},
  year         = {2017},
}