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Sexuellt ofredande när offret inte uppfattar en pågående kränkning - En fråga om synen på sexuell integritet

Dafnäs, Klara LU (2017) LAGF03 20171
Department of Law
Faculty of Law
Abstract (Swedish)
Denna uppsats syftar till att utreda om straffansvar för sexuellt ofredande i 6 kap. 10 § 2 st. andra ledet BrB kan aktualiseras även om offret inte upptäcker kränkningen när den pågår. Huvudfokus är icke-fysiska kränkningar såsom fotografering, filmning, kommentarer etcetera. I uppsatsen har en rättsdogmatisk metod använts, som till viss del kompletterats med ett genusperspektiv.

Bestämmelsen om sexuellt ofredande kriminaliserar ord och handlingar med en sexuell inriktning som typiskt sett kränker offrets sexuella integritet. Vissa domstolar har vid sin tillämpning av bestämmelsen menat att straffansvar för sexuellt ofredande inte kan föreligga när offret inte är medveten om en icke-fysisk pågående kränkning. Denna slutsats har nåtts... (More)
Denna uppsats syftar till att utreda om straffansvar för sexuellt ofredande i 6 kap. 10 § 2 st. andra ledet BrB kan aktualiseras även om offret inte upptäcker kränkningen när den pågår. Huvudfokus är icke-fysiska kränkningar såsom fotografering, filmning, kommentarer etcetera. I uppsatsen har en rättsdogmatisk metod använts, som till viss del kompletterats med ett genusperspektiv.

Bestämmelsen om sexuellt ofredande kriminaliserar ord och handlingar med en sexuell inriktning som typiskt sett kränker offrets sexuella integritet. Vissa domstolar har vid sin tillämpning av bestämmelsen menat att straffansvar för sexuellt ofredande inte kan föreligga när offret inte är medveten om en icke-fysisk pågående kränkning. Denna slutsats har nåtts dels genom prejudikat som egentligen inte handlat om sexuellt ofredande i dess nuvarande form, dels genom att så är fallet för ofredande i 4 kap. 7 § BrB. Ett relativt nytt rättsfall illustrerar det oklara rättsläget: en man åtalades för sexuellt ofredande efter att ha fotograferat en kvinnas underliv genom att föra in sin mobiltelefon under hennes kjol i en rulltrappa. Kvinnan märkte inte när fotograferingen pågick, utan upptäckte detta först efteråt. Mannen friades av hovrätten med motiveringen att gällande rätt inte ger utrymme för straffansvar om offret inte märker handlingen när den företas. I doktrin har framförts att sexualbrott i sjätte kapitlet BrB inte följer samma systematik som fjärde kapitlet BrB och att inget krav på offrets medvetenhet kan hittas varken i lagtext eller förarbeten. Centralt för bedömningen är hur skyddsintresset bakom bestämmelsen ska förstås såväl som vad dess förhållande till brottet ofredande i 4 kap. 7 § BrB är. Förarbetena uttalar att skyddsintresset idag är individens sexuella integritet och sexuella självbestämmanderätt. Vad som ses som sexuell integritet och sexuell självbestämmanderätt är dock fortfarande centrerat till det fysiska och då specifikt könsorgan och andra sexuella kroppsdelar. Samtidigt är det också någonting icke-fysiskt, vilket är märkbart inte minst genom lagstiftarens kriminalisering av icke-fysiska sexuella ofredanden. Slutsatsen är att 6 kap. 10 § 2 st. andra ledet BrB ger utrymme för att icke-fysiska sexuella ofredanden som offret inte upptäcker när de pågår, ska kunna föranleda straffansvar. (Less)
Abstract
The purpose of this thesis is to investigate the paragraph on sexual assault in Swedish Penal Code, Chapter 6 Article 10 second line, and if it criminalizes situations where the victim does not notice the assault when it occurs. The main focus are non-physical assaults such as photography, videotaping, comments etcetera. A legal dogmatic method has been used to achieve the purpose of the thesis. This has been complemented to some extent with a gender perspective.

The Swedish Penal Code criminalizes words and actions with a sexual orientation that typically violate the victim's sexual integrity. When courts have applied the legislation they have found that it does not criminalize non-physical assaults that the victim does not notice at... (More)
The purpose of this thesis is to investigate the paragraph on sexual assault in Swedish Penal Code, Chapter 6 Article 10 second line, and if it criminalizes situations where the victim does not notice the assault when it occurs. The main focus are non-physical assaults such as photography, videotaping, comments etcetera. A legal dogmatic method has been used to achieve the purpose of the thesis. This has been complemented to some extent with a gender perspective.

The Swedish Penal Code criminalizes words and actions with a sexual orientation that typically violate the victim's sexual integrity. When courts have applied the legislation they have found that it does not criminalize non-physical assaults that the victim does not notice at the time of the assault. This standing has been reached because of precedent cases from the Supreme Court, where the paragraph on sexual assault in its present form has not been applied. Courts have also argued that sexual assault should follow the same principles as the paragraph on assault in Chapter 4 Article 7 Swedish Penal Code, where liability does not apply of the victim is unaware of the assault. A recent case from a Court of Appeals illustrates the situation: a man was freed of charges of sexual assault after he photographed a woman’s vagina by putting his mobile phone under her skirt in an escalator. The woman had not noticed the photographing while it happened. The Court of Appeal freed him because they meant that non-physical sexual assaults were not criminalized if the victim did not notice the act while it is happening. In doctrine it has been argued that sexual offenses in the sixth chapter of the Penal Code do not follow the same principles as the fourth chapter of the Penal Code, and that no claim that the victim's awareness should matter can be found either in law or in legislative history. Central to this question is how to understand the protected interests behind the criminalization of sexual assault as well as what its relation to assault in Chapter 4 Article 7 Penal Code is. The focus of the criminal legislation today is to protect the individual’s sexual integrity and the individual’s right to sexual autonomy. What is viewed as sexual is focused on the body and specifically the “sexual” body parts. At the same time, it is also something non-physical, which can be understood through the criminalization of non-physical acts by sexual assault. The conclusion is that it is possible, and reasonable, to interpret Chapter 6 Article 10 as criminalizing non-physical sexual offenses that the victim does not detect when they take place. (Less)
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author
Dafnäs, Klara LU
supervisor
organization
course
LAGF03 20171
year
type
M2 - Bachelor Degree
subject
keywords
Straffrätt, Criminal Law
language
Swedish
id
8908413
date added to LUP
2017-06-30 12:56:28
date last changed
2017-06-30 12:56:28
@misc{8908413,
  abstract     = {The purpose of this thesis is to investigate the paragraph on sexual assault in Swedish Penal Code, Chapter 6 Article 10 second line, and if it criminalizes situations where the victim does not notice the assault when it occurs. The main focus are non-physical assaults such as photography, videotaping, comments etcetera. A legal dogmatic method has been used to achieve the purpose of the thesis. This has been complemented to some extent with a gender perspective.

The Swedish Penal Code criminalizes words and actions with a sexual orientation that typically violate the victim's sexual integrity. When courts have applied the legislation they have found that it does not criminalize non-physical assaults that the victim does not notice at the time of the assault. This standing has been reached because of precedent cases from the Supreme Court, where the paragraph on sexual assault in its present form has not been applied. Courts have also argued that sexual assault should follow the same principles as the paragraph on assault in Chapter 4 Article 7 Swedish Penal Code, where liability does not apply of the victim is unaware of the assault. A recent case from a Court of Appeals illustrates the situation: a man was freed of charges of sexual assault after he photographed a woman’s vagina by putting his mobile phone under her skirt in an escalator. The woman had not noticed the photographing while it happened. The Court of Appeal freed him because they meant that non-physical sexual assaults were not criminalized if the victim did not notice the act while it is happening. In doctrine it has been argued that sexual offenses in the sixth chapter of the Penal Code do not follow the same principles as the fourth chapter of the Penal Code, and that no claim that the victim's awareness should matter can be found either in law or in legislative history. Central to this question is how to understand the protected interests behind the criminalization of sexual assault as well as what its relation to assault in Chapter 4 Article 7 Penal Code is. The focus of the criminal legislation today is to protect the individual’s sexual integrity and the individual’s right to sexual autonomy. What is viewed as sexual is focused on the body and specifically the “sexual” body parts. At the same time, it is also something non-physical, which can be understood through the criminalization of non-physical acts by sexual assault. The conclusion is that it is possible, and reasonable, to interpret Chapter 6 Article 10 as criminalizing non-physical sexual offenses that the victim does not detect when they take place.},
  author       = {Dafnäs, Klara},
  keyword      = {Straffrätt,Criminal Law},
  language     = {swe},
  note         = {Student Paper},
  title        = {Sexuellt ofredande när offret inte uppfattar en pågående kränkning - En fråga om synen på sexuell integritet},
  year         = {2017},
}