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Enskild egendom, giftorättsgods eller lite av varje? - En studie av gällande rätt i fråga om surrogat av blandad karaktär

Stern Olsson, Caroline LU (2017) LAGF03 20171
Department of Law
Faculty of Law
Abstract (Swedish)
Denna uppsats behandlar problematiken rörande surrogat av blandad karaktär, det vill säga sådan ersättningsegendom som finansieras delvis genom makes giftorättsgods, delvis genom dennes enskilda egendom. Syftet är att utreda huruvida delningsprincipen, där surrogategendomen delas upp proportionellt i de två egendomsslagen, eller huvudsaklighetsprincipen, vilken innebär att hela surrogatet klassificeras som antingen enskild egendom eller giftorättsgods i sin helhet, ska tillämpas. Det undersöks även om några kvotgränser kan fastställas för klassificeringen. En rättsdogmatisk metod används för att utreda gällande rätt ur ett domarperspektiv. Vidare betraktas även rättsläget ur ett samhällsvetenskapligt perspektiv med motiv att föra en... (More)
Denna uppsats behandlar problematiken rörande surrogat av blandad karaktär, det vill säga sådan ersättningsegendom som finansieras delvis genom makes giftorättsgods, delvis genom dennes enskilda egendom. Syftet är att utreda huruvida delningsprincipen, där surrogategendomen delas upp proportionellt i de två egendomsslagen, eller huvudsaklighetsprincipen, vilken innebär att hela surrogatet klassificeras som antingen enskild egendom eller giftorättsgods i sin helhet, ska tillämpas. Det undersöks även om några kvotgränser kan fastställas för klassificeringen. En rättsdogmatisk metod används för att utreda gällande rätt ur ett domarperspektiv. Vidare betraktas även rättsläget ur ett samhällsvetenskapligt perspektiv med motiv att föra en diskussion om hur rätten på området bör se ut.

Enskild egendom tillskapas genom äktenskapsförord eller genom villkor i gåva, testamente eller förmånstagarförordnande av tredje man och ingår inte i bodelning mellan makarna. Även det som träder i stället för enskild egendom, så kallat surrogat, är att anse som makes enskilda om inget annat stadgas. Avseende surrogat som betalas med både enskilda medel och giftorättsmedel i form av belånade fastigheter har HD i ett flertal rättsfall använt sig av huvudsaklighetsprincipen och trots förhållandevis låga kvotvärden låtit kontantinsatsens karaktär vara avgörande. Även på enskilda medel i form av kontanter har huvudsaklighetsprincipen tillämpats när de sammanblandats med giftorättsmedel på bankkonto. Vad gäller annan typ av egendom och förvärvsförhålladen är rättsläget dock att betrakta som oklart.

Huvudsaklighetsprincipen och delningsprincipen kan i praktiken anses få samma resultat i slutändan. Detta genom de regler om vederlag och skevdelning som återfinns i äktenskapsbalken. Dessa ger möjlighet till att ett kompensationskrav kan riktas mot make som tar sitt giftorättsgods i anspråk för att förvärva eller öka värdet av sin enskilda egendom, alternativt att genom jämkning av oskäligt resultat få behålla mer av sitt giftorättsgods om enskilda medel använts för att öka detta. Reglerna om vederlag och skevdelning tillämpas dock relativt restriktivt och det finns därför anledning att ur ett moraliskt samhällsperspektiv förespråka en användning av delningsprincipen på surrogat av blandad karaktär för att uppnå ett så rättvist resultat som möjligt. Dock föreligger vissa praktiska svårigheter med att fastställa exakta kvotdelar giftorättsgods respektive enskild egendom i surrogategendomen, vilket istället motiverar en tillämpning av huvudsaklighetsprincipen. (Less)
Abstract
This thesis explores the challenge concerning mixed substitute property, meaning property acquired partly through the marital property of a spouse, partly through their separate property. The purpose is to investigate whether such property should be classified as both separate and marital, split proportionally, or as either separate or marital in entirety when division of property between spouses occur. It is also investigated if the type of classification differs depending on any established ratios of separate versus marital property. Current law is explored using a legal dogmatic method. Furthermore, the legal framework is examined through a social science perspective, aiming to discuss how the law should be applied.

Separate property... (More)
This thesis explores the challenge concerning mixed substitute property, meaning property acquired partly through the marital property of a spouse, partly through their separate property. The purpose is to investigate whether such property should be classified as both separate and marital, split proportionally, or as either separate or marital in entirety when division of property between spouses occur. It is also investigated if the type of classification differs depending on any established ratios of separate versus marital property. Current law is explored using a legal dogmatic method. Furthermore, the legal framework is examined through a social science perspective, aiming to discuss how the law should be applied.

Separate property can be acquired through a prenuptial agreement or through a stipulation in gifts, wills and appointments of beneficiaries by a third party and is not included in the division of property between spouses. Property that has been obtained as substitute for separate property is also still to be considered separate property unless stated otherwise. Concerning property which has been acquired with both separate and marital property in the form of mortgaged real estate, the Supreme Court of Sweden (Högsta domstolen) have in several legal cases, despite relatively low ratios, judged the nature of the down payment to be a deciding factor whether the property have been treated as separate or marital in entirety. The same principle of classifying mixed substitute property as either separate or marital in entirety has also been applied to separate property cash when it has been commingled with marital property on bank accounts. However, current law regarding other methods of acquisition or types of property remains unclear.

The choice between treating property as a mix of separate and marital, or as a single type, may in many cases lead to the same results. This is due to rules concerning compensation and uneven division of property in the Swedish Marriage Code (Äktenskapsbalken). These allow claims of compensation towards a spouse who uses marital property to acquire or appreciate the value of their separate property, as well as, through adjustment of unreasonable results from the division of property, allow a spouse to keep more of their marital property if separate property has been used to increase it. The rules concerning compensation and uneven division of property are, however, applied somewhat restrictively. There is therefore a moral reason to advocate for splitting mixed substitute property proportionally between separate and marital, in order to achieve a result as fair as possible. However, there are some practical difficulties with establishing specific ratios of each type of property, which supports treating property entirely as either separate or marital. (Less)
Please use this url to cite or link to this publication:
author
Stern Olsson, Caroline LU
supervisor
organization
course
LAGF03 20171
year
type
M2 - Bachelor Degree
subject
keywords
giftorättsgods, bodelning, enskild egendom, familjerätt, surrogat av blandad karaktär, surrogat, huvudsaklighetsprincipen, delningsprincipen, blandad gåva
language
Swedish
id
8908430
date added to LUP
2017-06-30 12:55:03
date last changed
2017-06-30 12:55:03
@misc{8908430,
  abstract     = {This thesis explores the challenge concerning mixed substitute property, meaning property acquired partly through the marital property of a spouse, partly through their separate property. The purpose is to investigate whether such property should be classified as both separate and marital, split proportionally, or as either separate or marital in entirety when division of property between spouses occur. It is also investigated if the type of classification differs depending on any established ratios of separate versus marital property. Current law is explored using a legal dogmatic method. Furthermore, the legal framework is examined through a social science perspective, aiming to discuss how the law should be applied.

Separate property can be acquired through a prenuptial agreement or through a stipulation in gifts, wills and appointments of beneficiaries by a third party and is not included in the division of property between spouses. Property that has been obtained as substitute for separate property is also still to be considered separate property unless stated otherwise. Concerning property which has been acquired with both separate and marital property in the form of mortgaged real estate, the Supreme Court of Sweden (Högsta domstolen) have in several legal cases, despite relatively low ratios, judged the nature of the down payment to be a deciding factor whether the property have been treated as separate or marital in entirety. The same principle of classifying mixed substitute property as either separate or marital in entirety has also been applied to separate property cash when it has been commingled with marital property on bank accounts. However, current law regarding other methods of acquisition or types of property remains unclear.

The choice between treating property as a mix of separate and marital, or as a single type, may in many cases lead to the same results. This is due to rules concerning compensation and uneven division of property in the Swedish Marriage Code (Äktenskapsbalken). These allow claims of compensation towards a spouse who uses marital property to acquire or appreciate the value of their separate property, as well as, through adjustment of unreasonable results from the division of property, allow a spouse to keep more of their marital property if separate property has been used to increase it. The rules concerning compensation and uneven division of property are, however, applied somewhat restrictively. There is therefore a moral reason to advocate for splitting mixed substitute property proportionally between separate and marital, in order to achieve a result as fair as possible. However, there are some practical difficulties with establishing specific ratios of each type of property, which supports treating property entirely as either separate or marital.},
  author       = {Stern Olsson, Caroline},
  keyword      = {giftorättsgods,bodelning,enskild egendom,familjerätt,surrogat av blandad karaktär,surrogat,huvudsaklighetsprincipen,delningsprincipen,blandad gåva},
  language     = {swe},
  note         = {Student Paper},
  title        = {Enskild egendom, giftorättsgods eller lite av varje? - En studie av gällande rätt i fråga om surrogat av blandad karaktär},
  year         = {2017},
}