Advanced

Skiljeklausuler i kollektivavtal - en analys av Arbetsdomstolens praxis och förenlighet med europarätten

Elvingsson, Anders LU (2017) JURM02 20171
Department of Law
Abstract
For the greater part of the 20th and 21st century, collective ideology has characterized the Swedish labour market. Individual rights have been weak in relation to the associations on the labour market. The idea that everyone can get the same protection, through membership of an association, has characterized the law and enforcement. The positive freedom of its association has been encouraged by the legislator, unlike the negative.
This paper examines how unorganized workers are affected by arbitration clauses in collective labour agreements. Agreements between labour associations are binding for the employee even though he is not a member in any association, even in the case of an arbitration clause. The employee must settle the dispute... (More)
For the greater part of the 20th and 21st century, collective ideology has characterized the Swedish labour market. Individual rights have been weak in relation to the associations on the labour market. The idea that everyone can get the same protection, through membership of an association, has characterized the law and enforcement. The positive freedom of its association has been encouraged by the legislator, unlike the negative.
This paper examines how unorganized workers are affected by arbitration clauses in collective labour agreements. Agreements between labour associations are binding for the employee even though he is not a member in any association, even in the case of an arbitration clause. The employee must settle the dispute before an arbitration tribunal.

The issues has been to investigate whether the practice of the Swedish labour court (AD) meet the formal and material practice on the Convention for the Protection of Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms (the Convention), and how AD practices meet the requirements of the Council Directive 91/533/EEC of 14 October 1991 on an employer´s obligation to inform employees of the conditions applicable to the contract or employment relationship (the Directive).

My conclusions are that practice from AD satisfies the formal legal requirements in relation to the Convention. Lay assessors sitting on a court contribute to a fair trial, provided that they do not have a common interest opposite to the applicant. In the material part there is doubt as to AD practice meets rule of law. Expensive proceedings in the arbitration panel may cause unorganized employees not to have their dispute resolved; the economic risk becomes too big. An arbitration clause can also be compared with a forced membership to an organization, something that violates the applicant’s negative freedom of association. A violation of Art 11 of the Convention is thus possible.

The Directive was incorporated into Swedish law at the same time Sweden became a member of the EU. The purpose of the Directive is to protect workers in the labour market by requiring employers to inform the employee of essential aspects of the employment contract. With regard to arbitration clauses it is sufficient to refer to it by reference to a collective agreement or workplace regulations. My conclusion is that this is insufficient based on Tore Sigeman's writings and case C-350/99 from the European Court of Justice.

The negative right to freedom of association needs to be strengthened in Swedish law. The individual's rights needs to be protected from violations of organizations on the labour market. Swedish legislation and practice need to change to fulfil the Convention and the Directive. (Less)
Abstract (Swedish)
Under större delen av 1900-talet och in på 2000-talet har den kollektiva ideologin präglat svensk arbetsmarknad. Individens rättigheter har varit svaga i förhållande till organisationerna på arbetsmarknaden. Tanken att alla kan få samma skydd, det är bara att bli medlem i en organisation, har präglat lagstiftning och rättstillämpning. Den positiva föreningsrätten har uppmuntrats av lagstiftaren till skillnad mot den negativa.
Syftet med denna uppsats har varit att undersöka hur oorganiserade arbetstagare påverkas av skiljeklausuler i kollektivavtal. Genom kollektivavtalets normerande verkan i svensk arbetsrätt, blir även den oorganiserade arbetstagaren bunden av skiljeklausul i kollektivavtal. Rätten att gå till allmän domstol försvinner... (More)
Under större delen av 1900-talet och in på 2000-talet har den kollektiva ideologin präglat svensk arbetsmarknad. Individens rättigheter har varit svaga i förhållande till organisationerna på arbetsmarknaden. Tanken att alla kan få samma skydd, det är bara att bli medlem i en organisation, har präglat lagstiftning och rättstillämpning. Den positiva föreningsrätten har uppmuntrats av lagstiftaren till skillnad mot den negativa.
Syftet med denna uppsats har varit att undersöka hur oorganiserade arbetstagare påverkas av skiljeklausuler i kollektivavtal. Genom kollektivavtalets normerande verkan i svensk arbetsrätt, blir även den oorganiserade arbetstagaren bunden av skiljeklausul i kollektivavtal. Rätten att gå till allmän domstol försvinner och arbetstagaren måste driva tvisten inför skiljenämnd.

Frågeställningarna har varit hur AD:s praxis uppfyller den formella och den materiella rättssäkerheten i förhållande till praxis i Europeiska konventionen om skydd för de mänskliga rättigheter (EKMR) och hur AD:s praxis uppfyller kraven i Upplysningsdirektivet(91/533/EEG).

Mina slutsatser är att AD:s praxis väl uppfyller den formella rättssäkerheten i förhållande till EKMR. Intresseledamöter i en domstol är inget hinder mot en rättvis rättegång, under förutsättning att dessa inte har ett motsatt intresse till den klagande. Däremot i den materiella delen anser jag att det finns tveksamhet om AD:s praxis uppfyller rättssäkerheten. Höga kostnader i skiljenämnd kan medföra att arbetstagare inte får sin tvist prövad, den ekonomiska risken blir för stor. Den ekonomiska bördan blir så stor att alternativet att stå utanför blir en betungande påföljd, ett straff för att inte ingå i en organisation. En viss sannolikhet finns därför för att en skiljeklausul kan jämställas med tvångsanslutning av den oorganiserade till en organisation. Något som strider mot den negativa föreningsrätten i art. 11 EKMR.

Upplysningsdirektivet införlivades i svensk rätt vid samma tidpunkt Sverige blev medlemmar i EU. Direktivets syfte är att skydda arbetstagare på arbetsmarknaden genom att arbetsgivare är skyldiga att upplysa arbetstagaren om väsentliga villkor i anställningsavtalet. Skiljeklausul är ett villkor det räcker med hänvisning till enligt AD:s praxis, antingen genom hänvisning till kollektivavtal eller regelsamling. Min slutsats är att detta inte är tillräckligt. Den slutsatsen baseras på Tore Sigemans skrifter och Langedomen C-350/99 från EU-domstolen.

Den negativa föreningsrätten behöver stärkas i svensk rätt och individens rättigheter skyddas från kränkningar av organisationer på arbetsmarknaden. Svensk lagstiftning och praxis behöver förändras för att leva upp till EKMR och Upplysningsdirektivet. (Less)
Please use this url to cite or link to this publication:
author
Elvingsson, Anders LU
supervisor
organization
alternative title
Arbitration clauses in collective labour agreements - an analysis of the practice of the Swedish labour court and European Law
course
JURM02 20171
year
type
H3 - Professional qualifications (4 Years - )
subject
keywords
civilrätt, arbetsrätt, kollektivavtal, skiljeklausul, svenska modellen, oorganiserade arbetstagare
language
Swedish
id
8908679
date added to LUP
2017-06-07 17:28:17
date last changed
2017-06-07 17:28:17
@misc{8908679,
  abstract     = {For the greater part of the 20th and 21st century, collective ideology has characterized the Swedish labour market. Individual rights have been weak in relation to the associations on the labour market. The idea that everyone can get the same protection, through membership of an association, has characterized the law and enforcement. The positive freedom of its association has been encouraged by the legislator, unlike the negative.
This paper examines how unorganized workers are affected by arbitration clauses in collective labour agreements. Agreements between labour associations are binding for the employee even though he is not a member in any association, even in the case of an arbitration clause. The employee must settle the dispute before an arbitration tribunal.

The issues has been to investigate whether the practice of the Swedish labour court (AD) meet the formal and material practice on the Convention for the Protection of Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms (the Convention), and how AD practices meet the requirements of the Council Directive 91/533/EEC of 14 October 1991 on an employer´s obligation to inform employees of the conditions applicable to the contract or employment relationship (the Directive).

My conclusions are that practice from AD satisfies the formal legal requirements in relation to the Convention. Lay assessors sitting on a court contribute to a fair trial, provided that they do not have a common interest opposite to the applicant. In the material part there is doubt as to AD practice meets rule of law. Expensive proceedings in the arbitration panel may cause unorganized employees not to have their dispute resolved; the economic risk becomes too big. An arbitration clause can also be compared with a forced membership to an organization, something that violates the applicant’s negative freedom of association. A violation of Art 11 of the Convention is thus possible.

The Directive was incorporated into Swedish law at the same time Sweden became a member of the EU. The purpose of the Directive is to protect workers in the labour market by requiring employers to inform the employee of essential aspects of the employment contract. With regard to arbitration clauses it is sufficient to refer to it by reference to a collective agreement or workplace regulations. My conclusion is that this is insufficient based on Tore Sigeman's writings and case C-350/99 from the European Court of Justice.

The negative right to freedom of association needs to be strengthened in Swedish law. The individual's rights needs to be protected from violations of organizations on the labour market. Swedish legislation and practice need to change to fulfil the Convention and the Directive.},
  author       = {Elvingsson, Anders},
  keyword      = {civilrätt,arbetsrätt,kollektivavtal,skiljeklausul,svenska modellen,oorganiserade arbetstagare},
  language     = {swe},
  note         = {Student Paper},
  title        = {Skiljeklausuler i kollektivavtal - en analys av Arbetsdomstolens praxis och förenlighet med europarätten},
  year         = {2017},
}