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Olika ansvarsformer för sexualbrott mot barn i 6 kap. 13 § BrB - Med anledning av Människohandelsutredningens lagförslag i SOU 2016:42

Persson, Sofia LU (2017) JURM02 20171
Department of Law
Abstract (Swedish)
Ämnet för denna uppsats är regleringen i 6 kap. 13 § BrB, som föreskriver att även den som inte insåg men hade skälig anledning att anta att ett barn är underårigt ska dömas till ansvar. Ansvar för sexualbrott förutsätter som huvudregel att en gärningsperson har uppsåt i förhållande till att ett barn är underårigt men 6 kap. 13 § BrB utgör således ett undantag härtill. Bestämmelsen syftar dels till att skydda barn mot sexuella handlingar, dels till att skydda misstänkta från att dömas då ingen klandervärdhet visats. Med anledning av regeringens lagförslag i SOU 2016:42, som föreslår att 6 kap. 13 § BrB ska reformeras, syftar uppsatsen till att ur ett rättssäkerhetsperspektiv och ur ett rättstrygghetsperspektiv utreda behovet av en... (More)
Ämnet för denna uppsats är regleringen i 6 kap. 13 § BrB, som föreskriver att även den som inte insåg men hade skälig anledning att anta att ett barn är underårigt ska dömas till ansvar. Ansvar för sexualbrott förutsätter som huvudregel att en gärningsperson har uppsåt i förhållande till att ett barn är underårigt men 6 kap. 13 § BrB utgör således ett undantag härtill. Bestämmelsen syftar dels till att skydda barn mot sexuella handlingar, dels till att skydda misstänkta från att dömas då ingen klandervärdhet visats. Med anledning av regeringens lagförslag i SOU 2016:42, som föreslår att 6 kap. 13 § BrB ska reformeras, syftar uppsatsen till att ur ett rättssäkerhetsperspektiv och ur ett rättstrygghetsperspektiv utreda behovet av en förändring av paragrafen. I en god rättsstat är den tilltalades rättssäkerhet en grundläggande rättighet, och innebär att rättsordningen ska bestå av regler som är förutsebara och som tillämpas på ett enhetligt sätt. Samtidigt ska allmänheten, i detta fall barnen, tillförsäkras rättstrygghet i form av en effektiv lagföring av gärningspersoner.

Barn under 15 år kan inte samtycka till sexuella handlingar, vilket innebär att den som begår en sexuell handling med ett barn under 15 år har begått ett sexualbrott mot barn. Även vissa handlingar med barn över 15 år men under 18 år är straffbara, trots att barn över 15 år har uppnått åldern för sexuell självbestämmanderätt. Bestämmelsen i 6 kap. 13 § BrB tillämpas i förhållande till alla sexualbrott mot barn och är av stor betydelse för om en gärning är straffbar eller inte. Regeln har dock inte förändrats sedan 1962 och inte heller har Högsta domstolen förtydligat den. I samband med friande domar har regeln uppmärksammats och kritiserats av såväl allmänhet som framstående jurister. Från flera olika håll har det framförts att den behöver förändras för att barns rätt till skydd inte ska urholkas. Förhoppningen med uppsatsen är att klargöra rättsläget och ge förslag på förbättringar för att öka rättssäkerheten och rättstryggheten. För att ge framställningen en mer dynamisk framtoning återges åsikter från praktiker löpande i texten.

I analysen konstateras att lagtexten och förarbetena ger lite vägledning för tillämpningen av 6 kap. 13 § BrB. Det framgår endast att barnets kroppsutveckling och omständigheterna i övrigt ska beaktas. Tolkningen har därmed överlämnats till domstolarna, vilket har resulterat i att rättstillämpningen varken är enhetlig eller förutsebar. Det innebär att det föreligger rättssäkerhetsbrister. Vidare finns det flera bevissvårigheter kopplade till bedömningen av barns kroppsutveckling, vilket innebär att en invändning om att gärningspersonen trott att barnet varit äldre riskerar att inte kunna motbevisas. Därmed blir lagföringen ineffektiv och rättstryggheten äventyras. Bestämmelsen är således i behov av en förändring. Det konstateras att ansvaret för att åtgärda problematiken borde ligga på lagstiftaren och att det därför är bra att bestämmelsen nyligen har utretts. Lagförslaget bedöms förvisso i viss mån förbättra rättssäkerheten och rättstryggheten men anses inte i tillräcklig utsträckning komma åt problematiken. En del bedömningsfrågor kvarstår, bland annat rörande barns kroppsutveckling. För att ytterligare skärpa lagstiftningen anges därför att ett alternativ kan vara att införa ett strikt ansvar med ett s.k. good-faith försvar för barn under 13 år, medan ett oaktsamhetsansvar borde gälla för barn under 18 år. (Less)
Abstract
The subject of this essay is the regulation in Chapter 6, 13th article of the BrB, which stipulates that even those who did not realise, but had reasonable reason to assume that a child is minor age, shall be sentenced to liability. The responsibility for sexual offences generally requires that the offender is intentional in relation to the fact that a child is underage, but Chapter 6, 13th article of the BrB is an exception to this. This provision is aimed both as a way of protecting children from sexual acts, and for protecting suspects from being sentenced without proof of intent or negligence in relation to the child’s age while upholding the suspects right to a foreseeable legislation. Following the government's bill in SOU 2016: 42,... (More)
The subject of this essay is the regulation in Chapter 6, 13th article of the BrB, which stipulates that even those who did not realise, but had reasonable reason to assume that a child is minor age, shall be sentenced to liability. The responsibility for sexual offences generally requires that the offender is intentional in relation to the fact that a child is underage, but Chapter 6, 13th article of the BrB is an exception to this. This provision is aimed both as a way of protecting children from sexual acts, and for protecting suspects from being sentenced without proof of intent or negligence in relation to the child’s age while upholding the suspects right to a foreseeable legislation. Following the government's bill in SOU 2016: 42, which proposes that Chapter 6, 13th article of the BrB is to be reformed, this essay aims to investigate the need for a change of provision from a legal certainty perspective, and from a legal security perspective. In a good rule of law, the legal certainty of the accused is a fundamental right, and means that the rule of law must consist of rules that are foreseeable and applied in a uniform manner. At the same time, the public, in this case the children, must be assured of a legal certainty in the form of effective prosecution of offenders.

Children under the age of 15 can not consent to sexual acts, which means that the person who commits a sexual act with a child under the age of 15 has committed a sexual offence against a child. Certain actions with children over the age of 15 but under 18 years are also punishable, even though children over the age of 15 have reached the age of sexual self-determination. The provision in Chapter 6, 13th article of the BrB is applied in relation to all sexual offences against children and is of great importance to whether an offence is punishable or not. However, the rule has not been changed since 1962 and nor have the Supreme Court clarified it. The rule has been noted and criticised by both public and prominent lawyers, particularly in connection with detention sentences. It has been suggested from various sources that the law needs to change, in order to prevent children's right to protection from being eroded. The hope of this paper is to clarify the legal situation and suggest improvements to increase legal certainty and legal security. In order to give the presentation a more dynamic appearance, opinions from practitioners are reproduced in the text.

The analysis finds that the text and the preliminary work provide small guidance for the application of Chapter 6, 13th article of the BrB. It is only apparent that the child's physical development and circumstances must be taken into account. The interpretation has thus been handed over to the courts, which has resulted in that the legal application has neither been uniform nor foreseeable. This means that there are legal uncertainties. In addition, there are several probabilities associated with the assessment of the child's development, which means that an objection that the perpetrator thought the child was older may not be able to be disproved. This makes inefficient prosecution and legal security is compromised. The provision is therefore in need of a change. It is stated that responsibility for addressing the problem should be on the legislator and that it is therefore good that the provision has recently been investigated. The bill is judged to improve legal certainty and legal security, but is not considered to adequately assess problems. A number of as- sessment questions remains, relating to the child's body development. In order to further tighten the legislation, it is proposed that a strict liability with a so-called good-faith defence should be introduced for children under 13 years, while a negligence liability should apply to children under 18 years. (Less)
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author
Persson, Sofia LU
supervisor
organization
alternative title
Various responsibilities for sexual offences against children in Chapter 6, article 13 of the BrB - Relating to the Bill of human trafficking in SOU 2016:42
course
JURM02 20171
year
type
H3 - Professional qualifications (4 Years - )
subject
keywords
straffrätt, criminal law, sexual offenses, sexualbrott, sexualbrott mot barn, 6 kap. 13 § BrB, strikt ansvar, strict liability
language
Swedish
id
8908708
date added to LUP
2017-06-09 10:00:02
date last changed
2017-06-16 17:55:14
@misc{8908708,
  abstract     = {The subject of this essay is the regulation in Chapter 6, 13th article of the BrB, which stipulates that even those who did not realise, but had reasonable reason to assume that a child is minor age, shall be sentenced to liability. The responsibility for sexual offences generally requires that the offender is intentional in relation to the fact that a child is underage, but Chapter 6, 13th article of the BrB is an exception to this. This provision is aimed both as a way of protecting children from sexual acts, and for protecting suspects from being sentenced without proof of intent or negligence in relation to the child’s age while upholding the suspects right to a foreseeable legislation. Following the government's bill in SOU 2016: 42, which proposes that Chapter 6, 13th article of the BrB is to be reformed, this essay aims to investigate the need for a change of provision from a legal certainty perspective, and from a legal security perspective. In a good rule of law, the legal certainty of the accused is a fundamental right, and means that the rule of law must consist of rules that are foreseeable and applied in a uniform manner. At the same time, the public, in this case the children, must be assured of a legal certainty in the form of effective prosecution of offenders.

Children under the age of 15 can not consent to sexual acts, which means that the person who commits a sexual act with a child under the age of 15 has committed a sexual offence against a child. Certain actions with children over the age of 15 but under 18 years are also punishable, even though children over the age of 15 have reached the age of sexual self-determination. The provision in Chapter 6, 13th article of the BrB is applied in relation to all sexual offences against children and is of great importance to whether an offence is punishable or not. However, the rule has not been changed since 1962 and nor have the Supreme Court clarified it. The rule has been noted and criticised by both public and prominent lawyers, particularly in connection with detention sentences. It has been suggested from various sources that the law needs to change, in order to prevent children's right to protection from being eroded. The hope of this paper is to clarify the legal situation and suggest improvements to increase legal certainty and legal security. In order to give the presentation a more dynamic appearance, opinions from practitioners are reproduced in the text.

The analysis finds that the text and the preliminary work provide small guidance for the application of Chapter 6, 13th article of the BrB. It is only apparent that the child's physical development and circumstances must be taken into account. The interpretation has thus been handed over to the courts, which has resulted in that the legal application has neither been uniform nor foreseeable. This means that there are legal uncertainties. In addition, there are several probabilities associated with the assessment of the child's development, which means that an objection that the perpetrator thought the child was older may not be able to be disproved. This makes inefficient prosecution and legal security is compromised. The provision is therefore in need of a change. It is stated that responsibility for addressing the problem should be on the legislator and that it is therefore good that the provision has recently been investigated. The bill is judged to improve legal certainty and legal security, but is not considered to adequately assess problems. A number of as- sessment questions remains, relating to the child's body development. In order to further tighten the legislation, it is proposed that a strict liability with a so-called good-faith defence should be introduced for children under 13 years, while a negligence liability should apply to children under 18 years.},
  author       = {Persson, Sofia},
  keyword      = {straffrätt,criminal law,sexual offenses,sexualbrott,sexualbrott mot barn,6 kap. 13 § BrB,strikt ansvar,strict liability},
  language     = {swe},
  note         = {Student Paper},
  title        = {Olika ansvarsformer för sexualbrott mot barn i 6 kap. 13 § BrB - Med anledning av Människohandelsutredningens lagförslag i SOU 2016:42},
  year         = {2017},
}