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Blockkedjeteknik och avtalsrätt - särskilt om skydd för svagare part vid användning av smarta kontrakt

Gunnarsson, Jennie LU (2017) JURM02 20171
Department of Law
Abstract (Swedish)
En ökad tillgång till och användning av information utmanar både de tekniska system och den lagstiftning som finns idag. Det är därför viktigt att det finns säkra och transparenta digitala tekniker för transaktioner och informationslagring samt lagstiftning som hanterar detta. Genom blockkedjeteknik kan parter registrera och verifiera transaktioner, dokument och avtal med fullständig tillit trots frånvaro av en betrodd tredje part. Ökad användning av blockkedjeteknik medför ett behov av tolkning av de tillämpliga rättsreglerna. Denna uppsats, som har sin utgångspunkt i ett konsumenträttsligt perspektiv, utreder därför genom en rättsdogmatisk metod hur svensk rätt bör tillämpas vid slutande av avtal genom blockkedjeteknik. Parter har frihet... (More)
En ökad tillgång till och användning av information utmanar både de tekniska system och den lagstiftning som finns idag. Det är därför viktigt att det finns säkra och transparenta digitala tekniker för transaktioner och informationslagring samt lagstiftning som hanterar detta. Genom blockkedjeteknik kan parter registrera och verifiera transaktioner, dokument och avtal med fullständig tillit trots frånvaro av en betrodd tredje part. Ökad användning av blockkedjeteknik medför ett behov av tolkning av de tillämpliga rättsreglerna. Denna uppsats, som har sin utgångspunkt i ett konsumenträttsligt perspektiv, utreder därför genom en rättsdogmatisk metod hur svensk rätt bör tillämpas vid slutande av avtal genom blockkedjeteknik. Parter har frihet att avtala om hur deras avtalsslutande ska gå till, men för att ett avtal ska vara giltigt är det nödvändigt att vissa elementära krav har blivit uppfyllda. Avtalslagen är teknikneutral och att två parter avtalar elektroniskt är i grunden inte några problem. Det kan dock vid avtal genom elektroniska element vara svårt att mellan parterna urskilja två samstämmiga viljeförklaringar, vilket enligt huvudregeln är ett nödvändigt krav för att ett avtal ska ha kommit till stånd. När en handling genomförs automatiskt, helt utan eller med begränsad mänsklig inverkan, kan det vara svårt att tala om en parts uttryckliga vilja. När det kommer till avtal som sluts genom blockkedjebaserade system är det idag inte klart vilka svenska avtalsrättsliga principer som gäller. Trots det finns stöd för att partsviljan ändå är uppfylld vid avtal som sluts genom blockkedjeteknik. Det är dock av stor vikt att samtliga parter som ingår ett avtal som sluts helt utan eller med begränsad mänsklig inverkan är medvetna om riskerna med avtalet, samt att den konsumenträttsliga skyddsregleringen tillgodoses. Konsumenträtten i sig utgör inte ett hinder för användningen av blockkedjeteknik och så kallade smarta kontrakt, och de regler som tillämpas i vanliga avtalssituationer där ena parten är konsument bör till övervägande del vara direkt applicerbara på avtal som sluts genom blockkedjeteknik. Med tiden kommer troligtvis praxis att utvecklas och modeller för hur lagstiftningen ska tolkas kommer ställas upp. Det är dock svårt för lagstiftaren att i nuläget utarbeta tydliga modeller när det kommer till ny teknik då det fortfarande är svårt att förutse en helhetsbild av vilka konkreta problem som kommer att uppstå i praktiken. (Less)
Abstract
An increased access to and use of information challenges both the technical systems and the legislation there is today. Therefore, it is important that there are secure and transparent digital techniques for transactions and storage of information and a clear legislation on the matter. Through the blockchain technique, parties can register and verify transactions, documents and contracts with full trust despite the absence of a trusted third party. Increased use of blockchains comes with a need to interpret the applicable rules. This thesis has its premise in a consumer perspective and investigates with a legal dogmatic method how Swedish law should be applied when it comes to conclusion of agreements through the blockchain technique.... (More)
An increased access to and use of information challenges both the technical systems and the legislation there is today. Therefore, it is important that there are secure and transparent digital techniques for transactions and storage of information and a clear legislation on the matter. Through the blockchain technique, parties can register and verify transactions, documents and contracts with full trust despite the absence of a trusted third party. Increased use of blockchains comes with a need to interpret the applicable rules. This thesis has its premise in a consumer perspective and investigates with a legal dogmatic method how Swedish law should be applied when it comes to conclusion of agreements through the blockchain technique. Parties have freedom to arrange their conclusions of agreement, but some elementary demands must be fulfilled in order for the contract to be valid. The Swedish Contract Act is technologically neutral, and an electronic agreement between two parties does not usually include problems. However, with agreements through electronic elements it can be difficult to distinguish two equivalent declarations of intent, which by the main rule are a necessary demand for the conclusion of an agreement. When an agreement is made automatically, with limited or no human input, is it difficult to talk about a party’s expressed intent. When it comes to contracts concluded through blockchain-based systems, is it not clear what principles of Swedish contract law that apply. Despite that, there is an endorsement that the parties’ intents have been fulfilled when it comes to contracts made with the techniques of blockchain. It is important that all involved parties concluding an agreement made with limited or no human input are aware of the risks associated with the agreement, and that the consumer protection rules are met. The Swedish legislation concerning consumers does not in itself constitute a holdback for the use of blockchains. The legislation applicable in normal situations concerning conclusions of agreement when one of the parties is a consumer, should in a dominant share be directly applicable on contracts made through blockchain technique. Over time, case law will almost certainly be developed and models for interpretation of the legislation will help to clarify the implementation of the blockchain technique and the so called smart contracts. However, it is currently difficult for the legislator to develop clear models when it comes to new techniques, since it is still difficult to predict which concrete problems will appear in the future. (Less)
Please use this url to cite or link to this publication:
author
Gunnarsson, Jennie LU
supervisor
organization
alternative title
Blockchain technique and contract law - especially about protection of weaker parties in use of smart contracts
course
JURM02 20171
year
type
H3 - Professional qualifications (4 Years - )
subject
keywords
Avtalsrätt, IT-rätt, Blockkedjeteknik, Blockchain, Smarta kontrakt, Smart contracts, Konsumentskydd
language
Swedish
id
8909063
date added to LUP
2017-06-19 13:42:29
date last changed
2017-06-19 13:42:29
@misc{8909063,
  abstract     = {An increased access to and use of information challenges both the technical systems and the legislation there is today. Therefore, it is important that there are secure and transparent digital techniques for transactions and storage of information and a clear legislation on the matter. Through the blockchain technique, parties can register and verify transactions, documents and contracts with full trust despite the absence of a trusted third party. Increased use of blockchains comes with a need to interpret the applicable rules. This thesis has its premise in a consumer perspective and investigates with a legal dogmatic method how Swedish law should be applied when it comes to conclusion of agreements through the blockchain technique. Parties have freedom to arrange their conclusions of agreement, but some elementary demands must be fulfilled in order for the contract to be valid. The Swedish Contract Act is technologically neutral, and an electronic agreement between two parties does not usually include problems. However, with agreements through electronic elements it can be difficult to distinguish two equivalent declarations of intent, which by the main rule are a necessary demand for the conclusion of an agreement. When an agreement is made automatically, with limited or no human input, is it difficult to talk about a party’s expressed intent. When it comes to contracts concluded through blockchain-based systems, is it not clear what principles of Swedish contract law that apply. Despite that, there is an endorsement that the parties’ intents have been fulfilled when it comes to contracts made with the techniques of blockchain. It is important that all involved parties concluding an agreement made with limited or no human input are aware of the risks associated with the agreement, and that the consumer protection rules are met. The Swedish legislation concerning consumers does not in itself constitute a holdback for the use of blockchains. The legislation applicable in normal situations concerning conclusions of agreement when one of the parties is a consumer, should in a dominant share be directly applicable on contracts made through blockchain technique. Over time, case law will almost certainly be developed and models for interpretation of the legislation will help to clarify the implementation of the blockchain technique and the so called smart contracts. However, it is currently difficult for the legislator to develop clear models when it comes to new techniques, since it is still difficult to predict which concrete problems will appear in the future.},
  author       = {Gunnarsson, Jennie},
  keyword      = {Avtalsrätt,IT-rätt,Blockkedjeteknik,Blockchain,Smarta kontrakt,Smart contracts,Konsumentskydd},
  language     = {swe},
  note         = {Student Paper},
  title        = {Blockkedjeteknik och avtalsrätt - särskilt om skydd för svagare part vid användning av smarta kontrakt},
  year         = {2017},
}