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Upphandlingsrättsliga aspekter av offentlig samverkan - En praktisk analys av s.k. Hamburgsamarbeten och jämförliga undantagsregleringar i nya LOU

Wennerström, Oscar LU (2017) JURM02 20171
Department of Law
Abstract (Swedish)
Offentlig samverkan är vanligt förekommande i Sverige, framförallt inom den kommunala sektorn. För att kommuner och landsting ska kunna leva upp till de offentligrättsliga krav som ställs är det ofta en nödvändig förutsättning att de utbyter tjänster med varandra. Ett problem som ofta uppstår vid sådana tjänsteutbyten är att samarbetsavtalet utgör ett upphandlingspliktigt kontrakt enligt reglerna om offentlig upphandling. Lagstiftningen innebär många gånger ett hinder för offentlig samverkan.

Den 1 januari 2017 trädde nya upphandlingslagar ikraft i Sverige. I den nya lagen om offentlig upphandling föreskrivs bestämmelser om undantag från upphandlingsplikten vid offentliga samarbetsavtal – Hamburg-samarbeten. Undantaget, som har växt... (More)
Offentlig samverkan är vanligt förekommande i Sverige, framförallt inom den kommunala sektorn. För att kommuner och landsting ska kunna leva upp till de offentligrättsliga krav som ställs är det ofta en nödvändig förutsättning att de utbyter tjänster med varandra. Ett problem som ofta uppstår vid sådana tjänsteutbyten är att samarbetsavtalet utgör ett upphandlingspliktigt kontrakt enligt reglerna om offentlig upphandling. Lagstiftningen innebär många gånger ett hinder för offentlig samverkan.

Den 1 januari 2017 trädde nya upphandlingslagar ikraft i Sverige. I den nya lagen om offentlig upphandling föreskrivs bestämmelser om undantag från upphandlingsplikten vid offentliga samarbetsavtal – Hamburg-samarbeten. Undantaget, som har växt fram genom EU-domstolens praxis, innebär att två eller flera upphandlande myndigheter under vissa förutsättningar kan samarbeta utan upphandlingsplikt, trots att de inte utövar någon kontroll över varandra. Uppsatsens huvudsakliga syfte är att utreda vad det nya Hamburg-undantaget innebär för upphandlande myndigheters möjlighet att utbyta tjänster genom samarbetsavtal. Uppsatsen utreder såväl undantagets rättsliga förutsättningar som de faktiska behoven av offentliga samarbeten i Sverige.

Med utgångspunkt i EU-domstolens praxis visar uppsatsen att Hamburg-undantaget är svårtolkat och av allt att döma ska tillämpas restriktivt. Ett antal kumulativa förutsättningar måste vara uppfyllda för att undantaget ska aktualiseras. Tjänsterna som utbyts i samarbetet måste vara att betrakta som ”offentliga”, de får endast styras av överväganden som hänger samman med ”allmänintresset” och måste utgöra ett ”gemensamt mål” för myndigheterna.
Vidare får ingen privat aktör vara avtalspart i samarbetet och ingen privat leverantör får på något sätt gynnas av det ingångna avtalet. De tjänster som avses får inte heller bedrivas av myndigheterna på den öppna marknaden i alltför stor utsträckning. Konkurrensrättsliga överväganden har generellt sett fått ökad en betydelse genom nya LOU och behandlas särskilt i anslutning till undantagets förutsättningar.

Uppsatsen visar att det finns ett stort behov bland kommuner och landsting i Sverige att samverka genom samarbetsavtal. Den närmare undersökningen av Hamburg-undantagets förutsättningar talar dock för att de nya reglerna inte kommer att tillgodose dessa behov. Undantagets tillämpningsområde är alltför snävt utformat, varför bestämmelsen endast kan aktualiseras i mycket specifika situationer. (Less)
Abstract
Public-public cooperation is common in Sweden, particularly in the municipal sector. In order for municipalities and county councils to live up to the requirements of public law, it is often a prerequisite for them to exchange services with each other. A problem often encountered in such exchanges of services is that the cooperation agreement is related to the laws of public procurement. The legislation often constitutes a barrier when it comes to public cooperation.

On January 1st, 2017, new public procurement laws took effect in Sweden. The new Public Procurement Act provides for exemptions from the duty to procure under public cooperation agreements – The Hamburg exemption. The exemption, which has emerged from the practice of the... (More)
Public-public cooperation is common in Sweden, particularly in the municipal sector. In order for municipalities and county councils to live up to the requirements of public law, it is often a prerequisite for them to exchange services with each other. A problem often encountered in such exchanges of services is that the cooperation agreement is related to the laws of public procurement. The legislation often constitutes a barrier when it comes to public cooperation.

On January 1st, 2017, new public procurement laws took effect in Sweden. The new Public Procurement Act provides for exemptions from the duty to procure under public cooperation agreements – The Hamburg exemption. The exemption, which has emerged from the practice of the European Court of Justice, means that, under certain conditions, two or more contracting authorities can cooperate without a contractual obligation, even though they do not exercise control over each other. The main purpose of the essay is to investigate what the Hamburg exemption implicates for the exchange of services through cooperation agreements. The thesis examines the legal conditions of the exemption as well as the actual needs of public co-operation in Sweden.

Based on the practice of the European Court of Justice, the thesis shows that the Hamburg exemption is difficult to understand and must be practiced restrictively. A number of cumulative conditions must be met in order for the exemption to be applicable. The services exchanged in the cooperation must be considered "public". Additionally, there is a requirement for the cooperation to be governed solely by considerations relating to the "public interest". The co-operation must also constitute a "common goal" for the authorities. Furthermore, no private parties may be part of the agreement and no private suppliers may in any way benefit from the agreement. Nor should the participating contracting authorities perform any extensive activities concerning the cooperation on the open market. The importance of competition law considerations has generally increased through new Swedish Public Procurement Act, and will be discussed particularly in relation to the conditions of the exemption.

The thesis shows that there are great needs among municipalities and county councils in Sweden to cooperate through public agreements. However, a closer examination of the Hamburg exemption presupposes that the new rules will not meet these needs. The scope of the exemption is too narrowly proposed; hence the provision is only applicable in very specific situations. (Less)
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author
Wennerström, Oscar LU
supervisor
organization
alternative title
Procurement law aspects of public-public cooperation - A practical analysis of the so-called Hamburg exemption and comparable exemption regulations in the new Swedish Public Procurement Act
course
JURM02 20171
year
type
H3 - Professional qualifications (4 Years - )
subject
keywords
avtalsrätt, EU-rätt, förmögenhetsrätt, konkurrensrätt, offentlig upphandling
language
Swedish
id
8909128
date added to LUP
2017-06-12 18:40:32
date last changed
2017-06-12 18:40:32
@misc{8909128,
  abstract     = {Public-public cooperation is common in Sweden, particularly in the municipal sector. In order for municipalities and county councils to live up to the requirements of public law, it is often a prerequisite for them to exchange services with each other. A problem often encountered in such exchanges of services is that the cooperation agreement is related to the laws of public procurement. The legislation often constitutes a barrier when it comes to public cooperation.

On January 1st, 2017, new public procurement laws took effect in Sweden. The new Public Procurement Act provides for exemptions from the duty to procure under public cooperation agreements – The Hamburg exemption. The exemption, which has emerged from the practice of the European Court of Justice, means that, under certain conditions, two or more contracting authorities can cooperate without a contractual obligation, even though they do not exercise control over each other. The main purpose of the essay is to investigate what the Hamburg exemption implicates for the exchange of services through cooperation agreements. The thesis examines the legal conditions of the exemption as well as the actual needs of public co-operation in Sweden.

Based on the practice of the European Court of Justice, the thesis shows that the Hamburg exemption is difficult to understand and must be practiced restrictively. A number of cumulative conditions must be met in order for the exemption to be applicable. The services exchanged in the cooperation must be considered "public". Additionally, there is a requirement for the cooperation to be governed solely by considerations relating to the "public interest". The co-operation must also constitute a "common goal" for the authorities. Furthermore, no private parties may be part of the agreement and no private suppliers may in any way benefit from the agreement. Nor should the participating contracting authorities perform any extensive activities concerning the cooperation on the open market. The importance of competition law considerations has generally increased through new Swedish Public Procurement Act, and will be discussed particularly in relation to the conditions of the exemption.

The thesis shows that there are great needs among municipalities and county councils in Sweden to cooperate through public agreements. However, a closer examination of the Hamburg exemption presupposes that the new rules will not meet these needs. The scope of the exemption is too narrowly proposed; hence the provision is only applicable in very specific situations.},
  author       = {Wennerström, Oscar},
  keyword      = {avtalsrätt,EU-rätt,förmögenhetsrätt,konkurrensrätt,offentlig upphandling},
  language     = {swe},
  note         = {Student Paper},
  title        = {Upphandlingsrättsliga aspekter av offentlig samverkan - En praktisk analys av s.k. Hamburgsamarbeten och jämförliga undantagsregleringar i nya LOU},
  year         = {2017},
}