Advanced

Avtalsfrihetens gränser i Kina - en komparativ studie i avtalsfrihet

Scholander, Carl LU (2017) JURM02 20171
Department of Law
Abstract (Swedish)
Efter Mao Zedongs död tog Deng Xiaoping makten över kommunistpartiet. Han genomförde en rad ekonomiska reformer för att ta Kina ur det tillstånd av ekonomisk efterblivenhet landet befann sig i.
Slutligen kom landet att införa en socialistisk marknadsekonomi. De ekonomiska reformer som genomförts har gett medborgarna i Kina ekonomiska rätt- och friheter. Traditionellt sett har rättigheter för individen inte existerat i Kina givet den traditionella synen på individen, och den rådande rättighetssynen gör snarare gällande att fri- och rättigheter är ett privilegium staten ger medborgarna snarare än att rättigheten skulle vara inneboende hos individen. Dessa ekonomiska
friheter jämförs även med en fågel i en bur, där fågeln har rätt att... (More)
Efter Mao Zedongs död tog Deng Xiaoping makten över kommunistpartiet. Han genomförde en rad ekonomiska reformer för att ta Kina ur det tillstånd av ekonomisk efterblivenhet landet befann sig i.
Slutligen kom landet att införa en socialistisk marknadsekonomi. De ekonomiska reformer som genomförts har gett medborgarna i Kina ekonomiska rätt- och friheter. Traditionellt sett har rättigheter för individen inte existerat i Kina givet den traditionella synen på individen, och den rådande rättighetssynen gör snarare gällande att fri- och rättigheter är ett privilegium staten ger medborgarna snarare än att rättigheten skulle vara inneboende hos individen. Dessa ekonomiska
friheter jämförs även med en fågel i en bur, där fågeln har rätt att flyga fritt inuti buren. Utifrån detta ser jag ett syfte i att se över hur begränsningarna i den kinesiska avtalsfriheten yttrar sig i jämförelse med de som förekommer i svensk rätt. Vidare är det intressant att se huruvida det finns någon genomgående princip som genomsyrar begränsningarna av avtalsfriheten i den kinesiska rätten.

Rent materiellt är rättshandlingar som strider mot lagstiftning ogiltiga i kinesisk rätt. Vidare är avtal som strider mot lagstiftning och administrativa bestämmelser som huvudregel också ogiltiga i kinesisk rätt. Någon liknande lagbestämmelse finns inte i svensk rätt, även om en liknande rättsprincip tillkommit via praxis. Den kinesiska avtalslagens (i uppsatsen benämnd som KAvtL) tredje kapitel finns ogiltighetsgrunder som i stora drag påminner om den svenska rätten med vissa
nyansskillnader. Den stora skillnaden är att det i den kinesiska rätten finns en rad politiska säkerhetsventiler. Ett liknande förhållande ser man även avseende den rättsliga kompetensen, där stor vikt läggs vid gransknings och godkännande för vissa typer av avtal mellan och av juridiska personer. Även om svensk rätt i hög grad är påverkad av politiska beslut givet regeringsformens stipulerande om att all offentlig makt utgår ifrån folket, finns inte samma grundläggande syn på rätten som ett politiskt instrument bland andra i Sverige. Sammantaget finns det både likheter och skillnader i hur avtalsfriheten begränsas i de båda systemen. Dock saknar de kinesiska säkerhetsventilerna en motsvarighet i svensk rätt. (Less)
Abstract
After the death of Mao Zedong, Deng Xiaoping seized power over the communist party. After which he installed economical reforms to aid china in recovering from its state of economical backwardness. China finally came to establish a socialt market economy. The economical reforms have given citizens in China a degree of economical freedom. Traditionally though, rights have not existed in China given the traditional view of the individual. The current view upon rights is more of that of a privilege granted by the state, than that of an inherent right of the individual. The economical freedoms has been compared to that of a bird in a cage. Whereas the bird can fly freely within the cage, it has to abide by the cages parameters. Given this, I... (More)
After the death of Mao Zedong, Deng Xiaoping seized power over the communist party. After which he installed economical reforms to aid china in recovering from its state of economical backwardness. China finally came to establish a socialt market economy. The economical reforms have given citizens in China a degree of economical freedom. Traditionally though, rights have not existed in China given the traditional view of the individual. The current view upon rights is more of that of a privilege granted by the state, than that of an inherent right of the individual. The economical freedoms has been compared to that of a bird in a cage. Whereas the bird can fly freely within the cage, it has to abide by the cages parameters. Given this, I see a point in examining the ways the restrictions of the freedoms contract correlate between Sweden and China. Furthermore is it interesting to see if there is any prevailing principle in the Chinese restrictions of the freedom of contract.

Civil acts that are in conflict with law are null and void in Chinese law. Furthermore are contracts that are in conflict with law and other administrative regulations as a principal rule also null and void according to Chinese law. Which lacks a direct comparison in Swedish law, even though there is a similar principle that has developed in Swedish case law. In the Chinese contract laws third chapter, there are provisions regarding the invalidity of a contract which largely resemble the Swedish provisions with some differences in nuance. The main difference however is the existence of safety-vents in the Chinese law hypothetically allowing for political interference. A similar condition can be seen in regards to the legal competence. Where great attention is being paid to registration and approval procedures for certain legal persons. Even if the Swedish law is heavily influenced by policy, given the stipulation in the Swedish constitution that all public power in Sweden emanates from the people, the same view upon law as a political instrument amongst others does not exist in Sweden. In total, there are both similarities and differences in how the Swedish and Chinese law limit the freedom of contract. However, the Swedish law lacks something closely resembling to the Chinese safety-vents. (Less)
Please use this url to cite or link to this publication:
author
Scholander, Carl LU
supervisor
organization
course
JURM02 20171
year
type
H3 - Professional qualifications (4 Years - )
subject
keywords
Avtalsfrihet, Kina, Sverige, komparativ rätt, avtalsrätt
language
Swedish
id
8910226
date added to LUP
2017-06-21 21:51:14
date last changed
2017-06-21 21:51:14
@misc{8910226,
  abstract     = {After the death of Mao Zedong, Deng Xiaoping seized power over the communist party. After which he installed economical reforms to aid china in recovering from its state of economical backwardness. China finally came to establish a socialt market economy. The economical reforms have given citizens in China a degree of economical freedom. Traditionally though, rights have not existed in China given the traditional view of the individual. The current view upon rights is more of that of a privilege granted by the state, than that of an inherent right of the individual. The economical freedoms has been compared to that of a bird in a cage. Whereas the bird can fly freely within the cage, it has to abide by the cages parameters. Given this, I see a point in examining the ways the restrictions of the freedoms contract correlate between Sweden and China. Furthermore is it interesting to see if there is any prevailing principle in the Chinese restrictions of the freedom of contract. 

Civil acts that are in conflict with law are null and void in Chinese law. Furthermore are contracts that are in conflict with law and other administrative regulations as a principal rule also null and void according to Chinese law. Which lacks a direct comparison in Swedish law, even though there is a similar principle that has developed in Swedish case law. In the Chinese contract laws third chapter, there are provisions regarding the invalidity of a contract which largely resemble the Swedish provisions with some differences in nuance. The main difference however is the existence of safety-vents in the Chinese law hypothetically allowing for political interference. A similar condition can be seen in regards to the legal competence. Where great attention is being paid to registration and approval procedures for certain legal persons. Even if the Swedish law is heavily influenced by policy, given the stipulation in the Swedish constitution that all public power in Sweden emanates from the people, the same view upon law as a political instrument amongst others does not exist in Sweden. In total, there are both similarities and differences in how the Swedish and Chinese law limit the freedom of contract. However, the Swedish law lacks something closely resembling to the Chinese safety-vents.},
  author       = {Scholander, Carl},
  keyword      = {Avtalsfrihet,Kina,Sverige,komparativ rätt,avtalsrätt},
  language     = {swe},
  note         = {Student Paper},
  title        = {Avtalsfrihetens gränser i Kina - en komparativ studie i avtalsfrihet},
  year         = {2017},
}