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Avtal om kostnader för planarbete

Lundberg, Jakob LU and Carlbring, Martin LU (2017) VFT920 20171
Real Estate Science
Abstract
Municipalities have large costs for their work with detailed development plans and area regulations. These planning costs are funded in different ways. Legislation permits municipalities to charge property owners for the planning costs of a certain plan, if the properties benefit from the plan by receiving building permits. Municipalities can charge a fee of planning when the building permits are processed. However, the fee can also be charged in advance. Many municipalities use this opportunity to form agreements with the property developers, in which they state terms for the division of work and payment of the plan.

The aim of this master thesis has been to find out how municipalities can fund their planning costs according to current... (More)
Municipalities have large costs for their work with detailed development plans and area regulations. These planning costs are funded in different ways. Legislation permits municipalities to charge property owners for the planning costs of a certain plan, if the properties benefit from the plan by receiving building permits. Municipalities can charge a fee of planning when the building permits are processed. However, the fee can also be charged in advance. Many municipalities use this opportunity to form agreements with the property developers, in which they state terms for the division of work and payment of the plan.

The aim of this master thesis has been to find out how municipalities can fund their planning costs according to current legislation, how they fund them today and how their practice with cost agreements relate to the legislation.

To find what boundaries the current legislation gives, we have examined law, preceding bills and investigations as well as court decisions in the matter. By asking municipalities if and why they use agreements to regulate their planning costs, we got an idea of how common the procedure is. We also retrieved contracts from 54 different municipal archives, which we reviewed to find how they actually regulate the costs of planning. By interviewing both municipality representatives and property developers, we were given an even wider idea of what motivates the use of these agreements, how they state the terms and what problems they might cause.

Our first conclusion is that the same rules apply for the municipalities’ funding of their planning costs, regardless if they charge them as a fee in connection to the building permits or if they regulate them in agreements in advance. It is always considered a fee of planning and the agreements must therefore follow the rules stated in the law. All costs related to necessary work with development plans and area regulations can be charged. The fee can however only be charged if the above-mentioned requirement of benefit is fulfilled. The price must follow the table of rates that the municipal politics have decided. The price must also be the same for equal cases and reflect the cost price.

Furthermore, we have found that almost every municipality strive to use cost agreements in most planning cases. They find the practice of charging the fee in connection to building permits to be complicated and too little connected to the work with and the costs of the plan.

We also conclude that some regulations that are commonly used in the cost agreements are not within the boundaries of the law. It occurs quite frequently that municipalities charge other prices than what their table of rates for planning costs states. This jeopardizes the credibility of the equality in the municipality’s way of funding. Another problem is that agreements in most cases regulates that the costs are going to be charged, even if the development plan would not gain legal power. A utilization of this kind of regulation would lead to property owners paying for planning costs that most definitely does not benefit their property. (Less)
Abstract (Swedish)
Kommuner har stora kostnader för sitt planarbete, vilka idag täcks på olika sätt. Lagstiftningen ger kommuner rätt att ta ut planavgift från de fastighetsägare vars fastigheter får nytta av planarbetet genom att bygglov ges i enlighet med planen. Planavgift kan tas ut i förskott, vilket har gett en kommunal praxis där så kallade plankostnadsavtal tecknas med den som ansöker om planläggning.

Examensarbetets syfte har varit att ta reda på vilka rättsliga ramar kommuner har för att täcka sina plankostnader, hur kommunerna faktiskt täcker sina plankostnader och hur kommunernas praxis förhåller sig till de rättsliga ramarna. Det har även undersökts om reglerna kring plankostnadsuttaget är ändamålsenliga.

En rättsdogmatisk studie har... (More)
Kommuner har stora kostnader för sitt planarbete, vilka idag täcks på olika sätt. Lagstiftningen ger kommuner rätt att ta ut planavgift från de fastighetsägare vars fastigheter får nytta av planarbetet genom att bygglov ges i enlighet med planen. Planavgift kan tas ut i förskott, vilket har gett en kommunal praxis där så kallade plankostnadsavtal tecknas med den som ansöker om planläggning.

Examensarbetets syfte har varit att ta reda på vilka rättsliga ramar kommuner har för att täcka sina plankostnader, hur kommunerna faktiskt täcker sina plankostnader och hur kommunernas praxis förhåller sig till de rättsliga ramarna. Det har även undersökts om reglerna kring plankostnadsuttaget är ändamålsenliga.

En rättsdogmatisk studie har genomförts för att finna vilka begränsningar gällande rätt sätter för kommuners möjligheter att få ersättning för sitt planarbete. Vidare har tre olika rättsociologiska studier drivits, för att ge en bild av hur kommuner täcker plankostnader i praktiken. I en enkätundersökning har vi fått svar från 102 kommuner på hur de vill använda och använder plankostnadsavtal. I enkäter tillsammans med intervjuer besvaras även vilka motiv kommuner har till att välja avtalsregleringar framför att ta ut planavgift vid bygglov. Vår undersökning av faktiska avtal från 54 kommuner visar hur ersättningsregleringarna ser ut i avtalen. Från intervjuer ges även branschens syn på rådande regler och kommunernas praxis kring plankostnadsuttag.

En slutsats är att kommuner får täcka sina plankostnader med stöd i vad lagstiftningen om planavgift medger i PBL 12:9-11. Reglerna är tvingande, men det finns inget hinder att avtala om plankostnaderna så länge reglerna om planavgift följs. Reglerna om planavgift medger att alla kostnader som kan hänföras till upprättandet av en detaljplan eller områdesbestämmelser får ersättas med planavgift. Planavgift får dock bara tas ut om en fastighet har nytta av planen och om det beviljas bygglov för någon åtgärd. Nödvändigt är att ersättningen har sin beräkningsgrund i en av kommunfullmäktige antagen plantaxa, samt att likställighets- och självkostnadsprincipen beaktas.

Vi har sett att nästan alla kommuner vill använda plankostnadsavtal för att reglera plankostnader. När planavgift tas ut vid bygglov upplevs kopplingen mellan planarbetet och betalningen som svag. I plankostnadsavtal regleras plankostnader på ett sätt som passar både kommuner och exploatörer bättre, då varje plan hanteras på en gång.

Vi kommer även fram till att det ofta sker regleringar i avtalen som inte är inom de rättsliga ramarna för plankostnadsuttag. Flera kommuner använder inte sin plantaxa för att bestämma ersättningen i sina plankostnadsavtal. Det är också vanligt att ersättning för planarbetet skall utgå även ifall det skulle avbrytas eller om planen inte vinner laga kraft, vilket skulle innebära att någon som inte fått nytta av planen ändå får betala.

Slutligen ifrågasätter vi ifall det verkligen är lämpligt att planavgift regleras på samma sätt som bygglovsavgift. Detaljplanefall går inte lika väl att dela in i typfall med liknande kostnader och kravet på bygglov för planavgiftsuttag skapar många problem. (Less)
Please use this url to cite or link to this publication:
author
Lundberg, Jakob LU and Carlbring, Martin LU
supervisor
organization
alternative title
Agreements of costs for urban planning
course
VFT920 20171
year
type
H3 - Professional qualifications (4 Years - )
subject
keywords
Plankostnad, Planavgift, Taxa, Plankostnadsavtal, Plan- och bygglagen, Planrelaterade utredningar, Likställighetsprincipen, Självkostnadsprincipen
other publication id
ISRN/LUTVDG/TVLM/17/5389 SE
language
Swedish
id
8913441
date added to LUP
2017-06-15 12:01:20
date last changed
2017-06-15 12:01:20
@misc{8913441,
  abstract     = {Municipalities have large costs for their work with detailed development plans and area regulations. These planning costs are funded in different ways. Legislation permits municipalities to charge property owners for the planning costs of a certain plan, if the properties benefit from the plan by receiving building permits. Municipalities can charge a fee of planning when the building permits are processed. However, the fee can also be charged in advance. Many municipalities use this opportunity to form agreements with the property developers, in which they state terms for the division of work and payment of the plan.

The aim of this master thesis has been to find out how municipalities can fund their planning costs according to current legislation, how they fund them today and how their practice with cost agreements relate to the legislation.

To find what boundaries the current legislation gives, we have examined law, preceding bills and investigations as well as court decisions in the matter. By asking municipalities if and why they use agreements to regulate their planning costs, we got an idea of how common the procedure is. We also retrieved contracts from 54 different municipal archives, which we reviewed to find how they actually regulate the costs of planning. By interviewing both municipality representatives and property developers, we were given an even wider idea of what motivates the use of these agreements, how they state the terms and what problems they might cause.

Our first conclusion is that the same rules apply for the municipalities’ funding of their planning costs, regardless if they charge them as a fee in connection to the building permits or if they regulate them in agreements in advance. It is always considered a fee of planning and the agreements must therefore follow the rules stated in the law. All costs related to necessary work with development plans and area regulations can be charged. The fee can however only be charged if the above-mentioned requirement of benefit is fulfilled. The price must follow the table of rates that the municipal politics have decided. The price must also be the same for equal cases and reflect the cost price.

Furthermore, we have found that almost every municipality strive to use cost agreements in most planning cases. They find the practice of charging the fee in connection to building permits to be complicated and too little connected to the work with and the costs of the plan.

We also conclude that some regulations that are commonly used in the cost agreements are not within the boundaries of the law. It occurs quite frequently that municipalities charge other prices than what their table of rates for planning costs states. This jeopardizes the credibility of the equality in the municipality’s way of funding. Another problem is that agreements in most cases regulates that the costs are going to be charged, even if the development plan would not gain legal power. A utilization of this kind of regulation would lead to property owners paying for planning costs that most definitely does not benefit their property.},
  author       = {Lundberg, Jakob and Carlbring, Martin},
  keyword      = {Plankostnad,Planavgift,Taxa,Plankostnadsavtal,Plan- och bygglagen,Planrelaterade utredningar,Likställighetsprincipen,Självkostnadsprincipen},
  language     = {swe},
  note         = {Student Paper},
  title        = {Avtal om kostnader för planarbete},
  year         = {2017},
}