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Sexsomni - en dröminvändning? - En analys av den rättsliga hanteringen gällande invändningen att den tilltalade begått våldtäkt i sömnen

Eriksson, Elin LU (2017) LAGF03 20171
Department of Law
Faculty of Law
Abstract (Swedish)
Ett nytt sätt att lägga upp försvar i våldtäktsmål har dykt upp i svenska domstolar de senaste åren. Detta försvar rör invändningen om sexsomni, det vill säga att den tilltalade skulle ha utfört den sexuella handlingen i sömnen. Denna uppsats syftar till att undersöka hur invändningen hanteras rättsligt. Vidare är det att reflektera över om det finns andra lösningar, då den rättsliga hanteringen i Sverige kritiserats av oberoende experter. För att uppnå detta syfte har två frågeställningar besvarats, dessa är hur en invändning om sexsomni hanteras vid åtal om våldtäkt och om invändningen kan hanteras på något annat sätt.

Sömnexperter runt om i världen är eniga om att fenomenet existerar. Det som vållar problem i domstolarna är att... (More)
Ett nytt sätt att lägga upp försvar i våldtäktsmål har dykt upp i svenska domstolar de senaste åren. Detta försvar rör invändningen om sexsomni, det vill säga att den tilltalade skulle ha utfört den sexuella handlingen i sömnen. Denna uppsats syftar till att undersöka hur invändningen hanteras rättsligt. Vidare är det att reflektera över om det finns andra lösningar, då den rättsliga hanteringen i Sverige kritiserats av oberoende experter. För att uppnå detta syfte har två frågeställningar besvarats, dessa är hur en invändning om sexsomni hanteras vid åtal om våldtäkt och om invändningen kan hanteras på något annat sätt.

Sömnexperter runt om i världen är eniga om att fenomenet existerar. Det som vållar problem i domstolarna är att bevisa att våldtäkten begåtts med uppsåt. Detta då en person som utför en handling under sömn inte agerar medvetet, något som förutsätts för att uppsåt ska föreligga. Åklagaren har den fulla bevisbördan i brottmål och ska således visa att den tilltalade inte agerade under sömn. Riksåklagaren har uttalat att samma bevislättnadsregel som gäller vid en nödvärnsinvändning även ska gälla vid en invändning om sexsomni, det vill säga att den ska framstå som obefogad. Vidare har Åklagarmyndigheten tagit fram en handledningsrapport till hjälp för åklagare i deras hanteringen av dessa mål. I uppsatsen har nio rättsfall från Hovrätterna studerats, då inget sexsomnifall prövats i HD ännu. Av dessa ledde fyra till friande domar och fem till fällande domar.

Slutsatsen är att den rättsliga hanteringen i Sverige är bristfällig. Handledningsrapporten från Åklagarmyndigheten är kortfattad och det finns delade meningar om huruvida delar av innehållet är faktamässigt korrekt. De sakkunniga som uttalat sig i domstolarna har ingen publicerad forskning och används inte i alla mål. Bevislättnadsregeln som riksåklagaren har sagt ska gälla i mål om sexsomni, har inte tillämpats i fallen. För att förbättra den rättsliga hanteringen av sexsomniinvändningar behövs ökad kunskap bland polis, åklagare, domare och sakkunniga. Vidare är en kriminalisering av våldtäkt på oaktsamhetsnivå en möjlighet. Detta skulle kunna medföra straffansvar när den tilltalade varit medveten om att hen utfört sexuella handlingar i sömnen mot en person tidigare, men ändå väljer att sova jämte en annan person. En ytterligare lösning är att vända på bevisbördan för själva sexsomniinvändningen. Det skulle innebära att åklagaren ska bevisa de objektiva kriterierna för våldtäkt, medan det skulle åligga försvaret att bevisa att de subjektiva kriterierna inte föreligger. (Less)
Abstract
A new defence against rape has appeared in Swedish courts in the last couple of years. This defence is based on the objection of sexsomnia, which means that the accused has performed the sexual act while asleep. This thesis aims to investigate how the objection is handled legally. Furthermore, the purpose is to analyse whether there are other solutions, since the judicial handling of sexsomnia in Sweden has been criticized by independent experts. To achieve this purpose, two questions have been answered, these are how an objection of sexsomnia is handled in the case of rape and if the objection can be handled in any other way.

Those who have researched sexsomnia agree that the phenomenon exists. What causes problems in courts is to... (More)
A new defence against rape has appeared in Swedish courts in the last couple of years. This defence is based on the objection of sexsomnia, which means that the accused has performed the sexual act while asleep. This thesis aims to investigate how the objection is handled legally. Furthermore, the purpose is to analyse whether there are other solutions, since the judicial handling of sexsomnia in Sweden has been criticized by independent experts. To achieve this purpose, two questions have been answered, these are how an objection of sexsomnia is handled in the case of rape and if the objection can be handled in any other way.

Those who have researched sexsomnia agree that the phenomenon exists. What causes problems in courts is to prove that the rape was committed intentionally, since a person acting during sleep is not conscious. Consciousness has been considered necessary, for intent to exist. The full burden of proof lies on the prosecutor, who has to show that the accused did not act during sleep. However, the prosecutor-general has stated that the same evidentiary alleviation applicable to self-defence also applies in the case of sexsomnia. Therefore, it is enough that the objection appears to be unjustified. Furthermore, The Swedish Prosecution Authority has created an instructional report for prosecutors, to help with their judicial handling of these cases. In the thesis nine cases from courts of appeal have been studied, since there has not yet been any case of sexsomnia in the Supreme Court. Of these, four led to verdicts of acquittal and five to convictions.

The conclusion is that the legal handling of sexsomnia is insufficient in Sweden. The instructional report is short and there are divided sentences about whether parts of the content are factually correct. The experts used in courts have no research published and experts are not used in all cases. The evidentiary alleviation rule, has not de facto been applied in the cases. To improve the judicial handling of the defence sexsomnia, there has to be increased knowledge among the police, prosecutors, judges and experts. Furthermore, criminalization of rape because of carelessness is a possibility. This could lead to criminal liability when the accused has been aware that they have performed sexual acts in sleep towards a person earlier, and still chose to lay down to sleep with another person. Another solution could be to reverse the burden of proof. That is to say that the prosecutor proves the objective criteria for rape, but that it is up to the defender to prove that the subjective criteria are not at hand. (Less)
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author
Eriksson, Elin LU
supervisor
organization
course
LAGF03 20171
year
type
M2 - Bachelor Degree
subject
keywords
Straffrätt
language
Swedish
id
8921617
date added to LUP
2017-09-12 10:49:41
date last changed
2017-09-12 10:49:41
@misc{8921617,
  abstract     = {A new defence against rape has appeared in Swedish courts in the last couple of years. This defence is based on the objection of sexsomnia, which means that the accused has performed the sexual act while asleep. This thesis aims to investigate how the objection is handled legally. Furthermore, the purpose is to analyse whether there are other solutions, since the judicial handling of sexsomnia in Sweden has been criticized by independent experts. To achieve this purpose, two questions have been answered, these are how an objection of sexsomnia is handled in the case of rape and if the objection can be handled in any other way. 

Those who have researched sexsomnia agree that the phenomenon exists. What causes problems in courts is to prove that the rape was committed intentionally, since a person acting during sleep is not conscious. Consciousness has been considered necessary, for intent to exist. The full burden of proof lies on the prosecutor, who has to show that the accused did not act during sleep. However, the prosecutor-general has stated that the same evidentiary alleviation applicable to self-defence also applies in the case of sexsomnia. Therefore, it is enough that the objection appears to be unjustified. Furthermore, The Swedish Prosecution Authority has created an instructional report for prosecutors, to help with their judicial handling of these cases. In the thesis nine cases from courts of appeal have been studied, since there has not yet been any case of sexsomnia in the Supreme Court. Of these, four led to verdicts of acquittal and five to convictions.

The conclusion is that the legal handling of sexsomnia is insufficient in Sweden. The instructional report is short and there are divided sentences about whether parts of the content are factually correct. The experts used in courts have no research published and experts are not used in all cases. The evidentiary alleviation rule, has not de facto been applied in the cases. To improve the judicial handling of the defence sexsomnia, there has to be increased knowledge among the police, prosecutors, judges and experts. Furthermore, criminalization of rape because of carelessness is a possibility. This could lead to criminal liability when the accused has been aware that they have performed sexual acts in sleep towards a person earlier, and still chose to lay down to sleep with another person. Another solution could be to reverse the burden of proof. That is to say that the prosecutor proves the objective criteria for rape, but that it is up to the defender to prove that the subjective criteria are not at hand.},
  author       = {Eriksson, Elin},
  keyword      = {Straffrätt},
  language     = {swe},
  note         = {Student Paper},
  title        = {Sexsomni - en dröminvändning? - En analys av den rättsliga hanteringen gällande invändningen att den tilltalade begått våldtäkt i sömnen},
  year         = {2017},
}