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Att främja medling – till varje pris? - En studie av olika tillvägagångssätt för att främja medling

Ekdahl Norling, Emil LU (2017) JURM02 20171
Department of Law
Faculty of Law
Abstract
Mediation, or conciliation, is a fast dispute resolution method with relatively low costs. A large proportion of all mediation procedures appear to result in successful agreements that are complied with by the parties. While noting the merits of mediation as a dispute resolution method, this thesis investigates, with a focus on commercial disputes, in which ways mediation can be promoted and to what extent it can be justified for a state to exert pressure and compulsion to induce parties to settle disputes through mediation.

To examine different ways of promoting mediation, several common law and civil law jurisdictions are compared. The thesis finds that mediation can be promoted through financial incentives, with subsidies or by... (More)
Mediation, or conciliation, is a fast dispute resolution method with relatively low costs. A large proportion of all mediation procedures appear to result in successful agreements that are complied with by the parties. While noting the merits of mediation as a dispute resolution method, this thesis investigates, with a focus on commercial disputes, in which ways mediation can be promoted and to what extent it can be justified for a state to exert pressure and compulsion to induce parties to settle disputes through mediation.

To examine different ways of promoting mediation, several common law and civil law jurisdictions are compared. The thesis finds that mediation can be promoted through financial incentives, with subsidies or by punishing a part that refuses to mediate with the legal costs of a lawsuit regardless of the outcome of the case. Furthermore, mediation can be promoted through increasing the parties’ access to information, for example by imposing an obligation on lawyers and judges to inform parties about alternative dispute resolution methods. The most intervening measure is to make mediation a mandatory prerequisite for bringing an action to court or by applying mandatory court orders referring the parties to mediation.

The thesis analyses, taking empirical studies and statistics into account, the results of the different approaches. Several empirical studies discussed in the paper show negative consequences of compulsory mediation. Mediation under compulsion, contrary to the purposes set for promoting mediation, risk leading to economic inefficiency and insufficient legal security. This is due, inter alia, to the fact that mediators generally do not intervene if a party enter into an unfavourable agreement. This may result in weak parties being disadvantaged at a large scale, which can be detrimental to the credibility of the legal system. It therefore appears inappropriate to categorically refer parties from a court procedure to mediation through compulsion or economic pressure. Furthermore, it appears somewhat alien that a state, through a cost penalty, will punish a party who enjoys his or her right to a fair trial.

The thesis finds that, since mediation is a dispute resolution method based on, and dependent on, subjective factors such as the parties' active participation, willingness to reach consensus and openness for mutual compromise, the suitability of any form of compulsion may be questioned. (Less)
Abstract (Swedish)
Medling är ett snabbt tvistlösningsförfarande med förhållandevis låga kostnader. En hög andel av alla medlingar som företas resulterar i överenskommelser som i stor utsträckning efterlevs av parterna. Mot bakgrund av medlingens förtjänster som tvistlösningsmetod undersöker uppsatsen, med fokus på kommersiella tvister, på vilka sätt medling kan främjas och i vilken utsträckning det är rättfärdigat av en stat att utöva påtryckning för att förmå parter att lösa sina tvister genom medling.

För att ta reda på olika tillvägagångssätt för att främja medling görs en komparativ utblick. Följande metoder för att främja medling identifieras som de vanligast förekommande: Medling kan främjas genom ekonomiska incitament, antingen genom subventioner... (More)
Medling är ett snabbt tvistlösningsförfarande med förhållandevis låga kostnader. En hög andel av alla medlingar som företas resulterar i överenskommelser som i stor utsträckning efterlevs av parterna. Mot bakgrund av medlingens förtjänster som tvistlösningsmetod undersöker uppsatsen, med fokus på kommersiella tvister, på vilka sätt medling kan främjas och i vilken utsträckning det är rättfärdigat av en stat att utöva påtryckning för att förmå parter att lösa sina tvister genom medling.

För att ta reda på olika tillvägagångssätt för att främja medling görs en komparativ utblick. Följande metoder för att främja medling identifieras som de vanligast förekommande: Medling kan främjas genom ekonomiska incitament, antingen genom subventioner eller genom att en part som vägrar medla kan belastas med rättegångskostnaderna oavsett utgången i målet. Vidare kan medlingen främjas genom ökad information till parterna, exempelvis genom att ålägga advokater och domare en skyldighet att informera om alternativ tvistlösning. Den mest ingripande åtgärden är att göra medlingen obligatorisk genom att staten kräver att parterna har försökt medla innan de får väcka talan eller genom att domstolen tvingande hänskjuter parternas tvist till medling.

I uppsatsen analyseras resultaten av de olika tillvägagångssätten med stöd i empiriska studier och statistik. Ett flertal empiriska studier som diskuteras i uppsatsen uppvisar negativa följdeffekter av medling under påtryckning. En hög frekvens av medling under påtryckning riskerar, i motsats till de syften som anges för att införa åtgärderna, att leda både till ekonomisk ineffektivitet och ett bristande rättskydd. Detta beror bland annat på att medlare generellt sett inte ingriper om en part ingår en ogynnsam överenskommelse, vilket kan leda till att svagare parter missgynnas Det verkar därför som att parter inte kategoriskt bör slussas från civilprocessen till medlingen genom tvång eller ekonomisk påtryckning. Det riskerar att inverka negativt på tilltron till rättsväsendet. Vidare verkar det något främmande att staten genom en kostnadssanktion eller dylikt ska straffa en part som åtnjuter sin grundlagsstadgade rättighet till en domstolsprövning.

Slutsatsen som dras är att eftersom medling är en tvistlösningsmetod som baseras på, och är beroende av, subjektiva faktorer såsom parternas aktiva deltagande, förlikningsvilja och öppenhet för ömsesidiga eftergifter, kan lämpligheten av olika former av påtryckning ifrågasättas. (Less)
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author
Ekdahl Norling, Emil LU
supervisor
organization
alternative title
Promoting mediation – At any cost? - A study of different ways of promoting mediation
course
JURM02 20171
year
type
H3 - Professional qualifications (4 Years - )
subject
keywords
Processrätt, Rättsekonomi, Komparativ rätt, Alternativ tvistlösning, Medling, Civil Procedure, Law and Economics, Comparative Law, Alternative Dispute Resolution, ADR, Mediation, Conciliation
language
Swedish
id
8922243
date added to LUP
2017-08-29 14:05:12
date last changed
2017-08-29 14:05:12
@misc{8922243,
  abstract     = {Mediation, or conciliation, is a fast dispute resolution method with relatively low costs. A large proportion of all mediation procedures appear to result in successful agreements that are complied with by the parties. While noting the merits of mediation as a dispute resolution method, this thesis investigates, with a focus on commercial disputes, in which ways mediation can be promoted and to what extent it can be justified for a state to exert pressure and compulsion to induce parties to settle disputes through mediation.

To examine different ways of promoting mediation, several common law and civil law jurisdictions are compared. The thesis finds that mediation can be promoted through financial incentives, with subsidies or by punishing a part that refuses to mediate with the legal costs of a lawsuit regardless of the outcome of the case. Furthermore, mediation can be promoted through increasing the parties’ access to information, for example by imposing an obligation on lawyers and judges to inform parties about alternative dispute resolution methods. The most intervening measure is to make mediation a mandatory prerequisite for bringing an action to court or by applying mandatory court orders referring the parties to mediation.

The thesis analyses, taking empirical studies and statistics into account, the results of the different approaches. Several empirical studies discussed in the paper show negative consequences of compulsory mediation. Mediation under compulsion, contrary to the purposes set for promoting mediation, risk leading to economic inefficiency and insufficient legal security. This is due, inter alia, to the fact that mediators generally do not intervene if a party enter into an unfavourable agreement. This may result in weak parties being disadvantaged at a large scale, which can be detrimental to the credibility of the legal system. It therefore appears inappropriate to categorically refer parties from a court procedure to mediation through compulsion or economic pressure. Furthermore, it appears somewhat alien that a state, through a cost penalty, will punish a party who enjoys his or her right to a fair trial.

The thesis finds that, since mediation is a dispute resolution method based on, and dependent on, subjective factors such as the parties' active participation, willingness to reach consensus and openness for mutual compromise, the suitability of any form of compulsion may be questioned.},
  author       = {Ekdahl Norling, Emil},
  keyword      = {Processrätt,Rättsekonomi,Komparativ rätt,Alternativ tvistlösning,Medling,Civil Procedure,Law and Economics,Comparative Law,Alternative Dispute Resolution,ADR,Mediation,Conciliation},
  language     = {swe},
  note         = {Student Paper},
  title        = {Att främja medling – till varje pris? - En studie av olika tillvägagångssätt för att främja medling},
  year         = {2017},
}