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Scheduler Algorithms for MU-MIMO

Moustafa, Wissam LU and Mugisha, Richard LU (2017) EITM02 20171
Department of Electrical and Information Technology
Abstract
In multi-user multiple input multiple output (MU-MIMO), the complexity of the base-station scheduler has increased further compared to single-user multiple input multiple output (SU-MIMO). The scheduler must understand if several users can be spatially multiplexed in the same time-frequency resource. One way to spatially separate users is through beamforming with sufficiently many antennas.
In this thesis work, two downlink beamforming algorithms for MU-MIMO are studied: The first algorithm implements precoding without considering inter-cell interference (ICI). The second one considers it and attempts to mitigate or null transmissions in the direction of user equipments (UEs) in other cells. The two algorithms are evaluated in SU-MIMO and... (More)
In multi-user multiple input multiple output (MU-MIMO), the complexity of the base-station scheduler has increased further compared to single-user multiple input multiple output (SU-MIMO). The scheduler must understand if several users can be spatially multiplexed in the same time-frequency resource. One way to spatially separate users is through beamforming with sufficiently many antennas.
In this thesis work, two downlink beamforming algorithms for MU-MIMO are studied: The first algorithm implements precoding without considering inter-cell interference (ICI). The second one considers it and attempts to mitigate or null transmissions in the direction of user equipments (UEs) in other cells. The two algorithms are evaluated in SU-MIMO and MU-MIMO setups operating in time division duplex (TDD) mode and serving with single and dual-antenna terminals. Full-Buffer (FB) and file transfer protocol (FTP) data traffic profiles are studied. Additionally, various UE mobility patterns, UE transmit antenna topologies, sounding reference signal (SRS) periodicity configurations, and uniform linear array (ULA) topologies are considered. Simulations have been performed using a system level simulation framework developed by Ericsson AB.
Another important part of this thesis work is the functional verification of this simulation framework, which at the time of writing is still undergoing development.
Our simulation results show that in SU-MIMO, the second algorithm, which considers ICI, outperforms the first one for FB traffic profile and all UE speeds, but not for FTP traffic profile and medium (30 km/h) or high (60 km/h) UE speeds. In this case, the first algorithm, which does not consider ICI, can be used with advantage. In MU-MIMO, cell downlink throughput gains are observed for the second algorithm over the first one for low and medium system loads (number of users). For both algorithms, the cell throughput is observed to decrease with increasing UE speed and sounding periodicity. (Less)
Popular Abstract
Scheduling in modern wireless standards, e.g., 3G, 4G and future 5G, can be defined as the task of allocating time and frequency resources by the base station (BS) to each user equipment (UE) that wants to engage in communication. Resources are allocated every transmission time interval (TTI), which is typically one millisecond. There exist both uplink (from the UEs to the BS) and downlink (from the BS to the UEs) resource schedulers implemented in the e-Node B, i.e., the base station (BS) in Long Term Evolution (LTE).
The aim of this thesis work is to study how various communication techniques proposed for 5G can increase the overall system throughput of the downlink (DL) when a realistic resource scheduler is used. In particular, we... (More)
Scheduling in modern wireless standards, e.g., 3G, 4G and future 5G, can be defined as the task of allocating time and frequency resources by the base station (BS) to each user equipment (UE) that wants to engage in communication. Resources are allocated every transmission time interval (TTI), which is typically one millisecond. There exist both uplink (from the UEs to the BS) and downlink (from the BS to the UEs) resource schedulers implemented in the e-Node B, i.e., the base station (BS) in Long Term Evolution (LTE).
The aim of this thesis work is to study how various communication techniques proposed for 5G can increase the overall system throughput of the downlink (DL) when a realistic resource scheduler is used. In particular, we consider: (i) Beamforming, (ii) Multi-user multiple input multiple output (MU-MIMO), and (iii) Inter-cell interference (ICI) mitigation.
Beamforming can be achieved by deploying a large number of antenna elements at the BS with the aim of increasing the signal to interference noise ratio (SINR) towards the UE. Contrary to single-user multiple input multiple output (SU-MIMO), in MU-MIMO more than one UE are scheduled for transmissions in the same time-frequency resource; this is possible by judiciously pairing various UEs which are spatially sufficiently separated (according to some metric that we will define later). ICI mitigation can be achieved by means of proper precoding at BS where the precoder attempts to mitigate the interfering signal from BS towards UEs belonging to neighboring cells.
In this thesis work, we investigate the performance of two scheduler algorithms for MU-MIMO, using SU-MIMO as baseline. The first algorithm does not consider ICI while the second one does. Dual layer beamforming (that is, two independent data streams are transmitted to each UE) and time division duplex (TDD) are assumed. In TDD mode the BS acquires the channel information from sounding reference signals (SRS) transmitted in the uplink (UL) and, by virtue of channel reciprocity, reuses the so-obtained channel information in the downlink.
The performance evaluation of the two algorithms is based on the following parameters: UE Traffic profile, UE speed, SRS UL antenna configuration, SRS parameters, and BS antenna topology.
- UE speed includes 3,30, and 60 km/h.
- UE traffic profile includes full-buffer (FB) and file transfer protocol (FTP). With FB traffic profile, UEs send/receive data to/from the BS all the time, while this is not the case in the FTP traffic profile case. Some examples of FTP traffic profiles may include chatty, video, VoIP, web, etc.
- SRS UL antenna configuration includes: (i) Two SRS, in which each UE sends two SRS to the BS from two antennas, (ii) one SRS with antenna selection, in which each UE alternately sends one SRS to the BS from each of two antennas, and (iii) one SRS without antenna selection, in which each UE sends one SRS to the BS from only one antenna. For two SRS UE case (note that in the downlink two layers, and hence two UE antennas, are always used).
- SRS parameters include SRS bandwidth and SRS periodicity. In this thesis work, full-bandwidth SRS (20 MHz) with various SRS periodicities such as 5 ms, 10 ms, 20 ms are considered.
- BS antenna topology includes 8 and 64 antenna elements at the BS.
The main result of this thesis work is that in both SU-MIMO and MU-MIMO with FB traffic profile, it is better to use the second algorithm which considers ICI rather than the first one which does not. However, with FTP traffic profile, this is not always the case. (Less)
Please use this url to cite or link to this publication:
author
Moustafa, Wissam LU and Mugisha, Richard LU
supervisor
organization
course
EITM02 20171
year
type
H2 - Master's Degree (Two Years)
subject
keywords
Scheduling, Beamforming, TDD, TM-8, SRS, Downlink, Round Robin, SU-MIMO, MU-MIMO.
report number
LU/LTH-EIT 2017-606
language
English
id
8927680
date added to LUP
2017-10-27 09:48:20
date last changed
2017-10-27 09:48:20
@misc{8927680,
  abstract     = {In multi-user multiple input multiple output (MU-MIMO), the complexity of the base-station scheduler has increased further compared to single-user multiple input multiple output (SU-MIMO). The scheduler must understand if several users can be spatially multiplexed in the same time-frequency resource. One way to spatially separate users is through beamforming with sufficiently many antennas.
In this thesis work, two downlink beamforming algorithms for MU-MIMO are studied: The first algorithm implements precoding without considering inter-cell interference (ICI). The second one considers it and attempts to mitigate or null transmissions in the direction of user equipments (UEs) in other cells. The two algorithms are evaluated in SU-MIMO and MU-MIMO setups operating in time division duplex (TDD) mode and serving with single and dual-antenna terminals. Full-Buffer (FB) and file transfer protocol (FTP) data traffic profiles are studied. Additionally, various UE mobility patterns, UE transmit antenna topologies, sounding reference signal (SRS) periodicity configurations, and uniform linear array (ULA) topologies are considered. Simulations have been performed using a system level simulation framework developed by Ericsson AB.
Another important part of this thesis work is the functional verification of this simulation framework, which at the time of writing is still undergoing development.
Our simulation results show that in SU-MIMO, the second algorithm, which considers ICI, outperforms the first one for FB traffic profile and all UE speeds, but not for FTP traffic profile and medium (30 km/h) or high (60 km/h) UE speeds. In this case, the first algorithm, which does not consider ICI, can be used with advantage. In MU-MIMO, cell downlink throughput gains are observed for the second algorithm over the first one for low and medium system loads (number of users). For both algorithms, the cell throughput is observed to decrease with increasing UE speed and sounding periodicity.},
  author       = {Moustafa, Wissam and Mugisha, Richard},
  keyword      = {Scheduling,Beamforming,TDD,TM-8,SRS,Downlink,Round Robin,SU-MIMO,MU-MIMO.},
  language     = {eng},
  note         = {Student Paper},
  title        = {Scheduler Algorithms for MU-MIMO},
  year         = {2017},
}