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Spatial and temporal analysis of fecal indicator bacteria concentrations in beach water in San Diego, California

Jemec Parker, Katarina LU (2017) In Master Thesis in Geographical Information Science GISM01 20172
Dept of Physical Geography and Ecosystem Science
Abstract
With millions of yearly beach visitors in southern California, beach water quality represents an important factor in public health and ocean dependent economy. Fecal indicator bacteria (FIB) in water is much easier to measure than disease causing organisms but correlation exists between the two. For this reason, FIB concentrations are used to measure recreational water quality and related health risk of body contact with the water. The source of FIB is often related, but not limited, to surface runoff. This study analyzed beach water FIB concentrations at two San Diego beaches, Ocean Beach and Tourmaline Surfing Park, that are affected by the river and storm water discharges, and explored the land use in their adjacent watersheds. The... (More)
With millions of yearly beach visitors in southern California, beach water quality represents an important factor in public health and ocean dependent economy. Fecal indicator bacteria (FIB) in water is much easier to measure than disease causing organisms but correlation exists between the two. For this reason, FIB concentrations are used to measure recreational water quality and related health risk of body contact with the water. The source of FIB is often related, but not limited, to surface runoff. This study analyzed beach water FIB concentrations at two San Diego beaches, Ocean Beach and Tourmaline Surfing Park, that are affected by the river and storm water discharges, and explored the land use in their adjacent watersheds. The study distinguished between wet and dry weather and compared bacterial concentrations against the watershed land use. Furthermore, the study analyzed temporal and spatial dynamics of bacterial concentrations during and after storm weather at Ocean Beach. Finally, the study examined the relationship between bacterial concentrations at seven sampling sites of San Diego River tributaries and the land use within the tributaries. Fecal indicator bacteria concentrations showed a significant rise during rainfall. Ocean Beach had significantly higher FIB concentrations during dry weather, compared to Tourmaline Surfing Park, with significantly higher FIB concentrations at the sampling location near the river discharge in wet weather. Bacterial concentrations generally decreased with the distance from the closest surface water discharge. The peak in FIB concentration rise was reached already on the first day of the storm weather at Tourmaline Surfing Park and on the second day at Ocean Beach. As little as 1 mm of rainfall was needed for a significant raise in bacterial concentrations in beach water. Watersheds with a higher percentage of residential and transport area had lower mean bacterial concentrations in beach water at the surface water discharge, compared to watershed with lower percent of residential and transport area. Higher percentage of land, used for parks or open space, undeveloped land, commercial and public services, recreation, industry and agriculture in the watershed, corresponded to higher mean indicator bacteria at the beach where the river discharges. No correlation was found between Enterococcus concentration in San Diego River and land use in the tributaries. (Less)
Popular Abstract
With millions of yearly beach visitors in southern California, beach water quality represents an important factor in public health and ocean dependent economy. Fecal indicator bacteria (FIB) in water is much easier to measure than disease causing organisms but the concentrations of both have a strong relationship. For this reason, FIB concentrations are normally used to measure recreational water quality and related health risk of body contact with the water. One of many possible sources of FIB is the water drained from the surface, including rivers and storm water systems. This study analyzed beach water FIB concentrations affected by the river and storm water discharges at two San Diego beaches, Ocean Beach and Tourmaline Surfing Park,... (More)
With millions of yearly beach visitors in southern California, beach water quality represents an important factor in public health and ocean dependent economy. Fecal indicator bacteria (FIB) in water is much easier to measure than disease causing organisms but the concentrations of both have a strong relationship. For this reason, FIB concentrations are normally used to measure recreational water quality and related health risk of body contact with the water. One of many possible sources of FIB is the water drained from the surface, including rivers and storm water systems. This study analyzed beach water FIB concentrations affected by the river and storm water discharges at two San Diego beaches, Ocean Beach and Tourmaline Surfing Park, and explored land use in the area of drainage. The study distinguished between wet and dry weather and compared bacterial concentrations against the watershed land use. Furthermore, the study explored how bacterial concentrations in water varied in space across the beach during and after the storm weather at Ocean Beach. Finally, the study examined the relationship between bacterial concentrations at seven sampling sites of San Diego River tributaries and the land use within the tributaries. Fecal indicator bacteria concentrations quickly raised during the rainfall. Ocean Beach had much higher FIB concentrations during dry weather, compared to Tourmaline Surfing Park, with very high FIB concentrations at the sampling location near the river discharge in wet weather. Bacterial concentration generally decreased with the distance from the closest surface water discharge. Indicator bacteria concentration was the highest on the first day of the storm weather at Tourmaline Surfing Park and on the second day at Ocean Beach. As little as 1 mm of rainfall was needed for a significant raise in bacterial concentrations in beach water. Watersheds with a higher percentage of residential and transport area had lower mean bacterial concentrations in beach water where the storm water drains discharge, compared to areas with lower residential and transport area percentage. Higher percentage of land used for parks or open space, undeveloped land, commercial and public services, recreation, industry and agriculture in the watershed corresponded to higher mean indicator bacteria at the beach where the river discharges. None of the land use groups was found to contribute to higher Enterococcus concentration in San Diego River. (Less)
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author
Jemec Parker, Katarina LU
supervisor
organization
course
GISM01 20172
year
type
H2 - Master's Degree (Two Years)
subject
keywords
Geography, GIS, FIB, beach water, spatial, temporal, land use, California, Physical Geography
publication/series
Master Thesis in Geographical Information Science
report number
78
language
English
id
8929348
date added to LUP
2017-12-13 12:22:46
date last changed
2017-12-13 12:22:46
@misc{8929348,
  abstract     = {With millions of yearly beach visitors in southern California, beach water quality represents an important factor in public health and ocean dependent economy. Fecal indicator bacteria (FIB) in water is much easier to measure than disease causing organisms but correlation exists between the two. For this reason, FIB concentrations are used to measure recreational water quality and related health risk of body contact with the water. The source of FIB is often related, but not limited, to surface runoff. This study analyzed beach water FIB concentrations at two San Diego beaches, Ocean Beach and Tourmaline Surfing Park, that are affected by the river and storm water discharges, and explored the land use in their adjacent watersheds. The study distinguished between wet and dry weather and compared bacterial concentrations against the watershed land use. Furthermore, the study analyzed temporal and spatial dynamics of bacterial concentrations during and after storm weather at Ocean Beach. Finally, the study examined the relationship between bacterial concentrations at seven sampling sites of San Diego River tributaries and the land use within the tributaries. Fecal indicator bacteria concentrations showed a significant rise during rainfall. Ocean Beach had significantly higher FIB concentrations during dry weather, compared to Tourmaline Surfing Park, with significantly higher FIB concentrations at the sampling location near the river discharge in wet weather. Bacterial concentrations generally decreased with the distance from the closest surface water discharge. The peak in FIB concentration rise was reached already on the first day of the storm weather at Tourmaline Surfing Park and on the second day at Ocean Beach. As little as 1 mm of rainfall was needed for a significant raise in bacterial concentrations in beach water. Watersheds with a higher percentage of residential and transport area had lower mean bacterial concentrations in beach water at the surface water discharge, compared to watershed with lower percent of residential and transport area. Higher percentage of land, used for parks or open space, undeveloped land, commercial and public services, recreation, industry and agriculture in the watershed, corresponded to higher mean indicator bacteria at the beach where the river discharges. No correlation was found between Enterococcus concentration in San Diego River and land use in the tributaries.},
  author       = {Jemec Parker, Katarina},
  keyword      = {Geography,GIS,FIB,beach water,spatial,temporal,land use,California,Physical Geography},
  language     = {eng},
  note         = {Student Paper},
  series       = {Master Thesis in Geographical Information Science},
  title        = {Spatial and temporal analysis of fecal indicator bacteria concentrations in beach water in San Diego, California},
  year         = {2017},
}