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Investigation of groundwater resources - A case study in north-west Tanzania using remote sensing analysis and groundwater simulation

Lundqvist, Cecilia LU (2017) In TVVR 17/5018 VVR820 20172
Division of Water Resources Engineering
Abstract (Swedish)
Globally 884 million people depend on unsafe drinking water, of which 159 million

depend on untreated surface water (WHO, 2017). In Tanzania 44% of the popula-
tion lack access to safe drinking water (WaterAid, 2017). Women and children in

the small city of Chonyonyo, in Karagwe district are walking several hours a day
for contaminated drinking water. According to a study, carried out in Tanzania, a
shorter walk by fifteen minutes would increase a girls attendance to school by twelve
percent (Unicef, 2013). The non-governmental organizations Engineers without
borders Sweden and M avuno Tanzania started a project to facilitate a water-supply system from a pumping well to the city of Chonyonyo. If successful the project would... (More)
Globally 884 million people depend on unsafe drinking water, of which 159 million

depend on untreated surface water (WHO, 2017). In Tanzania 44% of the popula-
tion lack access to safe drinking water (WaterAid, 2017). Women and children in

the small city of Chonyonyo, in Karagwe district are walking several hours a day
for contaminated drinking water. According to a study, carried out in Tanzania, a
shorter walk by fifteen minutes would increase a girls attendance to school by twelve
percent (Unicef, 2013). The non-governmental organizations Engineers without
borders Sweden and M avuno Tanzania started a project to facilitate a water-supply system from a pumping well to the city of Chonyonyo. If successful the project would change the every-day life of women and children in the city, who would no longer have to collect and carry water the demanding path to the waterhole. The quality of the drinking water would increase and possible outbreaks of illness could be avoided. This thesis makes an attempt to estimate the potential of a groundwater resource by Chonyonyo city, and investigate two suggested borehole locations presented by Mavuno. The drainage basin for the two locations are studied and a hydrological budget for the larger basin has been calculated. The annual infiltration is used as input recharge for a groundwater simulation model in MODFLOW. The bulk part of remaining input parameters are estimated from local drilling and geomagnetic survey reports. The result from the hydrologic budget shows that 50% of annual infiltration would be exploited to meet the fresh-water demand. The sustainability of such exploitation is questionable. The MODFLOW model shows that for maximum withdrawal the limiting factor is the aquifers transmissivity and therefor several pumping wells need to be constructed with appropriate distance from one another. To know the withdrawal capacity of the aquifer test-pumping is recommended. (Less)
Popular Abstract
In Chonyonyo, a village in north-west Tanzania, the majority of the population have no access to the groundwater beneath them. Every day, women and children walk several hours to a hole shared with animals, to collect contaminated drinking water for their families’ domestic needs. This report shows that the groundwater resources in the area are sufficient to supply the people of Chonyonyo with fresh-water. However the sustainability of the outtake needs to be investigated. Water collection is a huge contributor to Tanzanian girls missing school and contaminated drinking water is estimated to cause half a million deaths every year, it is therefor of out lost importance to make the groundwater available for the population.
This thesis is... (More)
In Chonyonyo, a village in north-west Tanzania, the majority of the population have no access to the groundwater beneath them. Every day, women and children walk several hours to a hole shared with animals, to collect contaminated drinking water for their families’ domestic needs. This report shows that the groundwater resources in the area are sufficient to supply the people of Chonyonyo with fresh-water. However the sustainability of the outtake needs to be investigated. Water collection is a huge contributor to Tanzanian girls missing school and contaminated drinking water is estimated to cause half a million deaths every year, it is therefor of out lost importance to make the groundwater available for the population.
This thesis is the result of a cooperation between two non-governmental organisations - Engineers without borders (Sweden) and Mavuno (Tanzania) - who together started a project to supply the villages of Chonyonyo with safe drinking water from a nearby groundwater resource. This will be done by constructing a new freshwater piping system which will bring water from a well in a nearby valley up to the village on the mountain ridge. A freshwater system would decrease the risks of contaminated water consumption and increase children’s attendance at school. This is one of three reports investigating the feasibility of such a project, by answering the question: how much water can be pumped from the aquifer, and is it enough to supply Chonyonys inhabitants? Another question discussed is the choice of location.
This report shows that an estimation of the groundwater resources is possible by using geographic information obtained from satellites, and climate data from a weather station it should also be said that the investigations were done from Sweden, with limited local data and knowledge. With a limited consumption of 20 l/day and person (UNs minimum amount/day) the groundwater is enough to supply the population of Chonyonyo, however; sustainability of this outtake still needs to be investigated. Risks such as depletion of the water hole and unbalanced ecosystems needs to be analyzed before start- ing to pump water from the new well. After such investigation the project with the fresh-water supply system can proceed and, hopefully, a freshwater system is soon in place, follow the project on Engineers without borders, Sweden, website: http://www.ingenjorerutangranser.se/projekt/water-system- chonyonyo-tanzania1 (Less)
Please use this url to cite or link to this publication:
author
Lundqvist, Cecilia LU
supervisor
organization
course
VVR820 20172
year
type
H2 - Master's Degree (Two Years)
subject
keywords
Groundwater resources, Remote sensing, Hydrologic budget, MOD- FLOW, Chonyonyo, Tanzania
publication/series
TVVR 17/5018
report number
17/5018
ISSN
1101-9824
language
English
additional info
Examiner: Professor Rolf Larsson
id
8929388
date added to LUP
2018-02-06 09:38:05
date last changed
2018-02-06 09:38:05
@misc{8929388,
  abstract     = {Globally 884 million people depend on unsafe drinking water, of which 159 million

depend on untreated surface water (WHO, 2017). In Tanzania 44% of the popula-
tion lack access to safe drinking water (WaterAid, 2017). Women and children in

the small city of Chonyonyo, in Karagwe district are walking several hours a day
for contaminated drinking water. According to a study, carried out in Tanzania, a
shorter walk by fifteen minutes would increase a girls attendance to school by twelve
percent (Unicef, 2013). The non-governmental organizations Engineers without
borders Sweden and M avuno Tanzania started a project to facilitate a water-supply system from a pumping well to the city of Chonyonyo. If successful the project would change the every-day life of women and children in the city, who would no longer have to collect and carry water the demanding path to the waterhole. The quality of the drinking water would increase and possible outbreaks of illness could be avoided. This thesis makes an attempt to estimate the potential of a groundwater resource by Chonyonyo city, and investigate two suggested borehole locations presented by Mavuno. The drainage basin for the two locations are studied and a hydrological budget for the larger basin has been calculated. The annual infiltration is used as input recharge for a groundwater simulation model in MODFLOW. The bulk part of remaining input parameters are estimated from local drilling and geomagnetic survey reports. The result from the hydrologic budget shows that 50% of annual infiltration would be exploited to meet the fresh-water demand. The sustainability of such exploitation is questionable. The MODFLOW model shows that for maximum withdrawal the limiting factor is the aquifers transmissivity and therefor several pumping wells need to be constructed with appropriate distance from one another. To know the withdrawal capacity of the aquifer test-pumping is recommended.},
  author       = {Lundqvist, Cecilia},
  issn         = {1101-9824},
  keyword      = {Groundwater resources,Remote sensing,Hydrologic budget,MOD- FLOW,Chonyonyo,Tanzania},
  language     = {eng},
  note         = {Student Paper},
  series       = {TVVR 17/5018},
  title        = {Investigation of groundwater resources - A case study in north-west Tanzania using remote sensing analysis and groundwater simulation},
  year         = {2017},
}