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Kränkande fotografering och sexuellt ofredande - tillämpning och tolkning

Olsen, Annie LU (2017) LAGF03 20172
Faculty of Law
Department of Law
Abstract (Swedish)
Denna uppsats syftar till att utreda skillnaderna mellan brotten kränkande fotografering i 4 kap. 6 a § BrB och sexuellt ofredande i 6 kap. 10 § BrB. I studien redogörs för lagrummens uppbyggnad, hur rekvisiten är utformade samt hur dessa tillämpas och tolkas av domstolarna. Huvudsakligt fokus ligger på situationer som innebär fotografering av ett eller flera brottsobjekt utan samtycke och hur detta hanteras i praxis. För att ge denna utredning en kontext så behandlas även strafflagstiftning, kriminalisering och skyddsintressen, först generellt och sedan för de specifika straffbestämmelserna. I uppsatsen har en rättsdogmatisk metod använts, som kompletteras av ett normkritiskt perspektiv.

Ramen för svensk lagstiftning baseras på den så... (More)
Denna uppsats syftar till att utreda skillnaderna mellan brotten kränkande fotografering i 4 kap. 6 a § BrB och sexuellt ofredande i 6 kap. 10 § BrB. I studien redogörs för lagrummens uppbyggnad, hur rekvisiten är utformade samt hur dessa tillämpas och tolkas av domstolarna. Huvudsakligt fokus ligger på situationer som innebär fotografering av ett eller flera brottsobjekt utan samtycke och hur detta hanteras i praxis. För att ge denna utredning en kontext så behandlas även strafflagstiftning, kriminalisering och skyddsintressen, först generellt och sedan för de specifika straffbestämmelserna. I uppsatsen har en rättsdogmatisk metod använts, som kompletteras av ett normkritiskt perspektiv.

Ramen för svensk lagstiftning baseras på den så kallade legalitetsprincipen som återfinnes i regeringsformens (1974:152) 2 kap. 10 §. Denna stadgar dels på vilket sätt lagregler skall tillkomma för att vara gällande, dels vad lagregeln inte får innehålla för att kunna tillämpas. När det kommer till strafflagstiftning så kompletteras legalitetsprincipen med ett antal riktlinjer för när kriminalisering bör ske samt allmänna principer för vilka gärningar som skall kriminaliseras. En av de grundläggande principerna för strafflagstiftning är att lagstiftaren endast får kriminalisera om det finns ett värde bakom som anses vara skyddsvärt.

Den sexuella integriteten är det skyddsvärde som ligger bakom brottet sexuellt ofredande; bestämmelsen avser alltså att förhindra att den sexuella integriteten kränks. Den sexuella integriteten har enligt lagstiftaren ett högt skyddsvärde i svensk rätt och utgångspunkten är att skydda varje människas rätt till sexuell självbestämmanderätt och sexuell integritet.

När det kommer till brottet kränkande fotografering är det istället skyddet av den personliga integriteten som står i fokus. Den personliga integriteten finns inte definierad i varken svensk rätt eller i EKMR men avgränsas till information om den enskilde; och där inräknat olovlig insamling av uppgifter om enskild, olovligt offentliggörande av de uppgifter, skydd mot intrång i den enskildes personliga sfär och slutligen skydd för identifieringsdata och bilder.

Slutsatsen i uppsatsen är att lagstiftningen av sexuellt ofredande såväl som kränkande fotografering inte är tillräcklig för att skydda individen från kränkning av de bakomliggande skyddsintressena. Denna slutsats har gjorts med utgångspunkt i den praxis som tillkommit på området i jämförelse med grundläggande principer för kriminalisering. (Less)
Abstract
This essay aims at investigating the differences between the crimes insulting photography in the Swedish Penal Code (brottsbalken), Chapter 4, article 6 a and sexual assault in Chapter 6, article 10. The study describes the structure of the law, how the procedural requirements are designed and how they are applied and interpreted by the courts. Main focus is on the situations that involve photographing people without their consent and how this is handled in praxis. In order to give the investigation a context, the essay also attend criminal law, criminalization and protection interests, first generally and then specifically for the penal provisions. In the essay, a legal-judicial method has been used, which is supplemented by a... (More)
This essay aims at investigating the differences between the crimes insulting photography in the Swedish Penal Code (brottsbalken), Chapter 4, article 6 a and sexual assault in Chapter 6, article 10. The study describes the structure of the law, how the procedural requirements are designed and how they are applied and interpreted by the courts. Main focus is on the situations that involve photographing people without their consent and how this is handled in praxis. In order to give the investigation a context, the essay also attend criminal law, criminalization and protection interests, first generally and then specifically for the penal provisions. In the essay, a legal-judicial method has been used, which is supplemented by a norm-critical perspective.

The framework for Swedish legislation is based on the so-called principle of legality, which is found in the Swedish Government form (regeringsformen) Chapter 2, article 10. This stipulates the manner in which rules of law shall apply in order to be valid and what the rule of law may not contain in order to apply. When it comes to criminal law, the principle of legality is supplemented with a number of guidelines for when criminalization should take place, as well as general principles for which acts should be criminalized. One of the fundamental principles of criminal law is that the legislator can only criminalize if there is a value behind the act, which is considered to be worthy of protection.

The sexual integrity is the interest of protection behind the crime sexual assault; thus the provision is intended to prevent sexual integrity from being violated. According to the legislature, the sexual integrity should have a high level of protection in Swedish law and the premiss is to protect every person's right to sexual autonomy and sexual integrity.

When it comes to the crime of insulting photography, it is the protection of the personal integrity that is in focus. Personal integrity is not defined in either Swedish law or in the ECHR but is circumscribed to information about the individual; including the illegal collection of data on individual, unlawful disclosure of the data, protection against intrusion into the personal privacy of the individual and, finally, the protection of identification data and images.

The conclusion of this essay is that the legislation of sexual assault as well as insulting photography is insufficient to protect the individual from violation of the underlying protection interests. This conclusion has been made on the basis of the practice gained in this area in comparison to fundamental principles of criminalization. (Less)
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author
Olsen, Annie LU
supervisor
organization
course
LAGF03 20172
year
type
M2 - Bachelor Degree
subject
keywords
straffrätt
language
Swedish
id
8929768
date added to LUP
2018-02-06 12:02:36
date last changed
2018-02-06 12:02:36
@misc{8929768,
  abstract     = {This essay aims at investigating the differences between the crimes insulting photography in the Swedish Penal Code (brottsbalken), Chapter 4, article 6 a and sexual assault in Chapter 6, article 10. The study describes the structure of the law, how the procedural requirements are designed and how they are applied and interpreted by the courts. Main focus is on the situations that involve photographing people without their consent and how this is handled in praxis. In order to give the investigation a context, the essay also attend criminal law, criminalization and protection interests, first generally and then specifically for the penal provisions. In the essay, a legal-judicial method has been used, which is supplemented by a norm-critical perspective.

The framework for Swedish legislation is based on the so-called principle of legality, which is found in the Swedish Government form (regeringsformen) Chapter 2, article 10. This stipulates the manner in which rules of law shall apply in order to be valid and what the rule of law may not contain in order to apply. When it comes to criminal law, the principle of legality is supplemented with a number of guidelines for when criminalization should take place, as well as general principles for which acts should be criminalized. One of the fundamental principles of criminal law is that the legislator can only criminalize if there is a value behind the act, which is considered to be worthy of protection.

The sexual integrity is the interest of protection behind the crime sexual assault; thus the provision is intended to prevent sexual integrity from being violated. According to the legislature, the sexual integrity should have a high level of protection in Swedish law and the premiss is to protect every person's right to sexual autonomy and sexual integrity.

When it comes to the crime of insulting photography, it is the protection of the personal integrity that is in focus. Personal integrity is not defined in either Swedish law or in the ECHR but is circumscribed to information about the individual; including the illegal collection of data on individual, unlawful disclosure of the data, protection against intrusion into the personal privacy of the individual and, finally, the protection of identification data and images.

The conclusion of this essay is that the legislation of sexual assault as well as insulting photography is insufficient to protect the individual from violation of the underlying protection interests. This conclusion has been made on the basis of the practice gained in this area in comparison to fundamental principles of criminalization.},
  author       = {Olsen, Annie},
  keyword      = {straffrätt},
  language     = {swe},
  note         = {Student Paper},
  title        = {Kränkande fotografering och sexuellt ofredande - tillämpning och tolkning},
  year         = {2017},
}