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Fastighetsskatt - En studie av en fastighetsskattereforms effekter på fastighetsmarknaden

Lundahl, Fabian LU and Navrátil Schönander, John LU (2017) VFT920 20162
Real Estate Science
Abstract (Swedish)
Fastighetsskatt är en löpande beskattning av fastigheter. I Sverige baseras fastighetsskatten på fastighetens värde och ska betalas av ägaren årligen. Väldigt liten hänsyn tas till den skattskyldiges inkomstförhållanden. Fastighetsskatten har i perioder varit väldigt omdebatterad och det är många som har haft synpunkter på hur den är utformad och på om skatten borde existera överhuvudtaget.

År 2008 skedde en större förändring i hur man beskattar boende i Sverige. Det tidigare systemet med statlig fastighetsskatt (1 procent av fastighetens taxeringsvärde) på bostäder ersattes med en kommunal fastighetsavgift (0,75 procent av fastighetens taxeringsvärde eller maximalt 6000 kronor). Fastighetsavgiften är till skillnad från... (More)
Fastighetsskatt är en löpande beskattning av fastigheter. I Sverige baseras fastighetsskatten på fastighetens värde och ska betalas av ägaren årligen. Väldigt liten hänsyn tas till den skattskyldiges inkomstförhållanden. Fastighetsskatten har i perioder varit väldigt omdebatterad och det är många som har haft synpunkter på hur den är utformad och på om skatten borde existera överhuvudtaget.

År 2008 skedde en större förändring i hur man beskattar boende i Sverige. Det tidigare systemet med statlig fastighetsskatt (1 procent av fastighetens taxeringsvärde) på bostäder ersattes med en kommunal fastighetsavgift (0,75 procent av fastighetens taxeringsvärde eller maximalt 6000 kronor). Fastighetsavgiften är till skillnad från fastighetsskatten begränsad i storlek och dessutom 25 procent lägre även för de fastigheter som inte behöver betala maximal fastighetsavgift. För många fastighetsägare innebar detta en stor skattelättnad.

Rapporten syftar till att ta reda på hur stor effekt denna skattelättnad haft på prisutvecklingen för småhusfastigheter. För att åstadkomma detta genomförs en empirisk analys av köpeskillingar vid småhusöverlåtelser i Västra Götalands län under perioden 1 jan 2005 till och med 31 dec 2015. De fastigheter som endast får ta del av skattelättnaden om 0,25 procentenheter utgör referensgrupp och förändringen av medelpriset i denna grupp jämförs med motsvarande förändring i grupper med högre taxerade fastigheter.

Den metod som har använts för att gallra och analysera datamaterialet liknar den som används vid taxering av småhusfastigheter. Tillvägagångssättet vid en sådan taxering beskrivs grundligt i rapportens teoridel tillsammans med bland annat grundläggande värdeteori, fastighetsavgiftens uppbyggnad och de förändringar reformen innebar.

Rapporten redogör dessutom för hur reformen påverkat olika grupper, statens skatteintäkter och huruvida avskaffandet av fastighetsskatten bidrog till att Sveriges bostadsmarknad klarade sig genom finanskrisen 2008.

Resultatet av analysen visar på att skattelättnaden har bidragit till högre fastighetspriser. Priserna på fastigheter med höga taxeringsvärden har ökat snabbare än priserna på fastigheter med lägre taxeringsvärden. Detta stämmer överens med vår teori om att priset på de fastigheter som får störst skattelättnad borde öka mest.

Samtidigt har reformen inneburit att skatteintäkterna har minskat kraftigt i relation till det totala taxeringsvärdet av Sveriges bostäder. Det tog sju år från det att de nya bestämmelserna började gälla innan de samlade skatteintäkterna från fastighetsavgiften, reavinstskatten, uppskovsräntan och fastighetsskatten på bostäder översteg 2007 års nivåer. Detta trots att värdet av landets bostadsfastigheter ökat med över 50 procent under samma period.

Vi kan således konstatera att fastighetsskattereformen har påverkat den svenska bostadsmarknaden men huruvida reformens effekter varit goda är upp till var och en att själv bedöma. (Less)
Abstract
The Swedish property tax saw a reform in 2008. The former system with a state property tax (1 percent of the property’s tax value) on housing was replaced by a local real estate fee (0.75 percent of the property's tax value or a maximum of 6000 SEK). Furthermore, the local real estate fee is, in contrast to the property tax, limited in size and 25 percent lower for properties that do not reach the cap. Property owners have, as a result, experienced a reduction in tax liability.

The study aims to analyse if the tax reform has impacted the price trends regarding private housing. An empirical analysis of purchase prices for house transfers in Västra Götaland County between January 1, 2005, to December 31, 2015, has been used to determine... (More)
The Swedish property tax saw a reform in 2008. The former system with a state property tax (1 percent of the property’s tax value) on housing was replaced by a local real estate fee (0.75 percent of the property's tax value or a maximum of 6000 SEK). Furthermore, the local real estate fee is, in contrast to the property tax, limited in size and 25 percent lower for properties that do not reach the cap. Property owners have, as a result, experienced a reduction in tax liability.

The study aims to analyse if the tax reform has impacted the price trends regarding private housing. An empirical analysis of purchase prices for house transfers in Västra Götaland County between January 1, 2005, to December 31, 2015, has been used to determine if the relationship can be statistically confirmed. Properties that benefit from the tax deduction of 25 percent constitute the reference group and the following change in average pricing related to the reference group are later compared to corresponding changes in groups with higher valued properties.

The method used to erase and analyse data is comparable to the method used for calculating the taxation of houses in Sweden. Moreover, the method is described in detail in the theory section together with value theory, the structure of property taxation in Sweden and a detailed description of the reform.

The report also explains how the reform affected different groups, the state's tax income and whether the replacement of the property tax structure contributed to Sweden's housing market being able to successfully endure the turmoil many countries experienced after the global financial crisis in 2008.

The result of the analysis implies that the tax relief has contributed to higher property prices. Furthermore, the average property price for high tax value subjects has increased more than real estate with lower tax values. The determined relationship between property price and tax relief is aligned with our theory that states that the price of the properties that receive the greatest tax breaks increases the most in value.

Meanwhile, the reform has meant that tax revenues have decreased compared to the total tax value of all residential property in Sweden. It took approximately seven years for the total tax income from state property tax, capital income tax on house sales, deferred interest rate and local real estate fee exceeded 2007 levels after the reform was introduced, despite the fact that the prices of residential properties rose by more than 50% over the same time span.

In conclusion, the study conveys that the property tax reform has affected the Swedish housing market, whether the effects have been beneficial is in the eyes of the beholder. (Less)
Please use this url to cite or link to this publication:
author
Lundahl, Fabian LU and Navrátil Schönander, John LU
supervisor
organization
alternative title
Property tax
course
VFT920 20162
year
type
H3 - Professional qualifications (4 Years - )
subject
keywords
Fastighetsskatt, Kommunal fastighetsavgift, Prisutveckling, Skatteintäkter, Bostadsmarknad, Property tax, Local real estate fee, Price trend, Tax revenue, Housing market
other publication id
ISRN/LUTVDG/TVLM/17/5404SE
language
Swedish
id
8929778
date added to LUP
2018-02-05 14:38:20
date last changed
2018-02-05 14:38:20
@misc{8929778,
  abstract     = {The Swedish property tax saw a reform in 2008. The former system with a state property tax (1 percent of the property’s tax value) on housing was replaced by a local real estate fee (0.75 percent of the property's tax value or a maximum of 6000 SEK). Furthermore, the local real estate fee is, in contrast to the property tax, limited in size and 25 percent lower for properties that do not reach the cap. Property owners have, as a result, experienced a reduction in tax liability. 

The study aims to analyse if the tax reform has impacted the price trends regarding private housing. An empirical analysis of purchase prices for house transfers in Västra Götaland County between January 1, 2005, to December 31, 2015, has been used to determine if the relationship can be statistically confirmed. Properties that benefit from the tax deduction of 25 percent constitute the reference group and the following change in average pricing related to the reference group are later compared to corresponding changes in groups with higher valued properties.

The method used to erase and analyse data is comparable to the method used for calculating the taxation of houses in Sweden. Moreover, the method is described in detail in the theory section together with value theory, the structure of property taxation in Sweden and a detailed description of the reform.

The report also explains how the reform affected different groups, the state's tax income and whether the replacement of the property tax structure contributed to Sweden's housing market being able to successfully endure the turmoil many countries experienced after the global financial crisis in 2008.

The result of the analysis implies that the tax relief has contributed to higher property prices. Furthermore, the average property price for high tax value subjects has increased more than real estate with lower tax values. The determined relationship between property price and tax relief is aligned with our theory that states that the price of the properties that receive the greatest tax breaks increases the most in value.

Meanwhile, the reform has meant that tax revenues have decreased compared to the total tax value of all residential property in Sweden. It took approximately seven years for the total tax income from state property tax, capital income tax on house sales, deferred interest rate and local real estate fee exceeded 2007 levels after the reform was introduced, despite the fact that the prices of residential properties rose by more than 50% over the same time span.

In conclusion, the study conveys that the property tax reform has affected the Swedish housing market, whether the effects have been beneficial is in the eyes of the beholder.},
  author       = {Lundahl, Fabian and Navrátil Schönander, John},
  keyword      = {Fastighetsskatt,Kommunal fastighetsavgift,Prisutveckling,Skatteintäkter,Bostadsmarknad,Property tax,Local real estate fee,Price trend,Tax revenue,Housing market},
  language     = {swe},
  note         = {Student Paper},
  title        = {Fastighetsskatt - En studie av en fastighetsskattereforms effekter på fastighetsmarknaden},
  year         = {2017},
}