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I sexualbrottens gränsland - En granskning av skyddet för barn mellan 15 och 18 år mot sexuellt utnyttjande och sexuella övergrepp i Sverige

Friberg, Moa LU (2017) JURM02 20172
Department of Law
Faculty of Law
Abstract (Swedish)
I barnkonventionens artikel 34 stadgas ett krav på att konventionsstaterna ska skydda barn mot alla former av sexuellt utnyttjande och sexuella övergrepp. Uppsatsens syfte är att utreda vad detta krav på skydd innebär. Till uppsatsens syfte hör också att utreda om det finns någonting Sverige, som konventionsstat, kan göra för att i större grad anses leva upp till kravet på skydd för barn mellan 15 och 18 år samt om de förslag till ändringar i 6 kap. BrB som föreslås i betänkandet Ett starkare skydd för den sexuella integriteten, om de blir verklighet, innebär ett starkare skydd för barn mellan 15 och 18 år. Vid besvarandet, utifrån ett barnrättsperspektiv, av uppsatsens frågeställningar har både en folkrättslig och en rättsdogmatisk metod... (More)
I barnkonventionens artikel 34 stadgas ett krav på att konventionsstaterna ska skydda barn mot alla former av sexuellt utnyttjande och sexuella övergrepp. Uppsatsens syfte är att utreda vad detta krav på skydd innebär. Till uppsatsens syfte hör också att utreda om det finns någonting Sverige, som konventionsstat, kan göra för att i större grad anses leva upp till kravet på skydd för barn mellan 15 och 18 år samt om de förslag till ändringar i 6 kap. BrB som föreslås i betänkandet Ett starkare skydd för den sexuella integriteten, om de blir verklighet, innebär ett starkare skydd för barn mellan 15 och 18 år. Vid besvarandet, utifrån ett barnrättsperspektiv, av uppsatsens frågeställningar har både en folkrättslig och en rättsdogmatisk metod använts.

Uppsatsens första frågeställning handlar om vad kravet på skydd mot sexuellt utnyttjande och sexuella övergrepp innebär. Först konstateras att skyddet omfattar alla barn till dess de fyller 18 år eller blir myndiga. Vilka handlingar som är att anse som sexuellt utnyttjande eller sexuella övergrepp samt på vilket sätt barn ska skyddas mot dessa handlingar framgår varken av barnkonventionen, dess förarbeten eller de handböcker som utgivits av UNICEF. Det står klart att det finns flera sätt att genomföra skyddet på och att barnrättskommittén, genom sina sammanfattande slutsatser till konventionsstaterna, rekommenderar olika åtgärder beroende på hur kommittén anser att skyddet bäst genomförs i en enskild konventionsstat. Att leva upp till kravet på skydd mot sexuellt utnyttjande och sexuella övergrepp handlar således inte bara om att följa konventionstexten utan också om att följa de rekommendationer som barnrättskommittén lämnar. Dessa rekommendationer är olika och specifika för enskilda konventionsstater och också uppdateras över tid, allt eftersom kunskapen om hur barn bäst skyddas ökar. Detta innebär att efterlevnaden av barnkonventionen är ett konstant pågående arbete och barnkonventionen ska därför ses som ett verktyg för att gradvis förbättra barns villkor.

Vid besvarandet av uppsatsens andra frågeställning, om huruvida det finns någonting Sverige, som konventionsstat, kan göra för att i större utsträckning leva upp till kravet på skydd mot sexuellt utnyttjande och sexuella övergrepp mot barn mellan 15 och 18 år, har avvägningen mellan barnets rätt till sexuellt självbestämmande och barnets rätt till skydd mot sexuellt utnyttjande och sexuella övergrepp varit central. Barn mellan 15 och 18 år befinner sig i ett gränsland eftersom de, enligt barnkonventionen, är att anse som barn men enligt den svenska strafflagstiftningen i princip räknas som vuxna. Endast i de fall de står i en särskild relation till förövaren har de ett utökat skydd i jämfört med vuxna. Att utreda exakt var gränsen mellan att anses leva upp till kravet på skydd och inte göra det samt på vilken sida om denna gräns Sverige befinner sig har inte ansetts intressant i denna uppsats. Vad som däremot är intressant att utreda är vad Sverige kan göra för att i större utsträckning anses leva upp till kravet på skydd mot sexuellt utnyttjande och sexuella övergrepp mot barn mellan 15 och 18 år. På detta område har Sverige fått omfattande kritik och det finns därför mycket Sverige skulle kunna göra för att i större grad anses leva upp till kravet på skydd.

Vad gäller uppsatsens tredje och sista frågeställning, om huruvida de förslag till ändringar i 6 kap. BrB som föreslås i betänkandet Ett starkare skydd för den sexuella integriteten, om de blir verklighet, innebär ett starkare skydd för barn mellan 15 och 18 år, har konstaterats att skyddet troligen kommer att stärkas något. Detta främst genom förslagen om samtyckeskrav, oaktsamhetsansvar samt att det vid brottsrubriceringen ska beaktas om brottet har riktats mot ett barn under 18 år. Skillnaderna kommer troligen, i praktiken, att bli små och det bör därför finnas mycket kvar att göra för att Sverige i större grad ska anses leva upp till kravet på skydd mot sexuellt utnyttjande och sexuella övergrepp mot barn mellan 15 och 18 år. En förutsättning för att skyddet för denna målgrupp ska kunna stärkas ytterligare är att de riktas särskild uppmärksamhet utifrån ett barnrättsperspektiv i framtida sexualbrottsutredningar, något som de knappt gjorts i tidigare sexualbrottsutredningar. (Less)
Abstract
Article 34 in the United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child stipulates that the State Parties undertake to protect children from all forms of sexual exploitation and sexual abuse. The purpose of this essay is to examine what the requirements of protection means. Furthermore, it will be examined if there is anything Sweden, as a State Party, can do to improve its compliance with the requirements of protection from all forms of sexual exploitation and sexual abuse of children between the ages 15 and 18. Finally it will also be examined if the proposed changes presented in the committee report Ett starkare skydd för den sexuella integriteten (A stronger protection for the sexual integrity) concerning the 6:th chapter in the Swedish... (More)
Article 34 in the United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child stipulates that the State Parties undertake to protect children from all forms of sexual exploitation and sexual abuse. The purpose of this essay is to examine what the requirements of protection means. Furthermore, it will be examined if there is anything Sweden, as a State Party, can do to improve its compliance with the requirements of protection from all forms of sexual exploitation and sexual abuse of children between the ages 15 and 18. Finally it will also be examined if the proposed changes presented in the committee report Ett starkare skydd för den sexuella integriteten (A stronger protection for the sexual integrity) concerning the 6:th chapter in the Swedish Penal Code, if they are implemented, strengthens the protection from all forms of sexual exploitation and sexual abuse of children between the ages 15 and 18. When answering the essay’s questions from a children’s rights perspective a legal dogmatic method and an international law method has been used.

The first question examined in the essay concerns the meaning of the requirements of protection from sexual exploitation and sexual abuse. First, it is stated that the protection covers all children until they reach the age 18 or the age of majority. Which acts that are regarded as a form of sexual exploitation or sexual abuse and how children should be protected from these acts is not clarified in the Convention on the Rights of the Child, the legislative history or the handbooks issued by UNICEF. What is clear is that there are many ways to implement the protection. Through its concluding observations to the State Parties the United Nations Committee on the Rights of the Child recommends different actions depending on how the Committee considers that the protection is best implemented in an individual State Party. The requirements of protection from sexual exploitation and sexual abuse are therefore not only about the compliance with the Convention text but also the compliance with the Committee’s recommendations. These recommendations vary not only between State Parties but also over time, as knowledge about how children are best protected increases. This means that compliance with the Convention on the Rights of the Child is a constant ongoing work and the Convention should therefore be seen as a tool for gradually improving children’s conditions.

When responding to the essay’s second question, whether there is anything Sweden, as a State Party, can do to improve its level of compliance with the requirements of protection from all forms of sexual exploitation and sexual abuse for children between the ages 15 and 18, the balance between the child’s right to sexual self-determination and the child’s right to protection against sexual exploitation and sexual abuse has been central. Children between the ages 15 and 18 are, according to the Convention on the Rights of the Child, considered to be children but are in the Swedish Penal Code considered as adults. Only when they are in a state of dependency of the perpetrator they have an increased protection compared with adults. To examine where the line between compliance with the requirements of protection and non-compliance is and on which side of the line Sweden is, is not considered of interest in this essay. What is considered interesting is what Sweden can do to improve its level of compliance with the requirements of protection from all forms of sexual exploitation and sexual abuse for children between the ages 15 and 18. Regarding this matter Sweden has received extensive criticism and there are many actions that Sweden could take to implement and to improve its level of compliance with the requirements of protection.

The essay’s third and last question relates to the proposed changes presented in the committee report Ett starkare skydd för den sexuella integriteten (A stronger protection for the sexual integrity) concerning the 6:th chapter in the Swedish Penal Code. If these changes are implemented, will the protection from all forms of sexual exploitation and sexual abuse of children between the ages 15 and 18 be strengthened? It is found that the protection will be somewhat strengthened through these changes. This is mostly due to the proposal of using a consent-based regulation, the liability for negligence for some sexual offences and that a special consideration shall be taken when and if an offence has been aimed at a child under the age of 18 when classifying an offence. In practice the effects will probably be small and therefore there are presumably many actions that Sweden could take to implement and to improve the protection from all forms of sexual exploitation and sexual abuse for children between the ages 15 and 18. To further protection for children in this age group, future official reports should keep specific attention to them as this has barely been the case in the previous reports on sexual offences. (Less)
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author
Friberg, Moa LU
supervisor
organization
alternative title
In the borderland of sexual offenses - An examination of the protection from sexual exploitation and sexual abuse of children between the ages 15 and 18 in Sweden
course
JURM02 20172
year
type
H3 - Professional qualifications (4 Years - )
subject
keywords
Straffrätt, Folkrätt, Sexualbrott
language
Swedish
id
8929957
date added to LUP
2018-02-01 13:59:28
date last changed
2018-02-01 13:59:28
@misc{8929957,
  abstract     = {Article 34 in the United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child stipulates that the State Parties undertake to protect children from all forms of sexual exploitation and sexual abuse. The purpose of this essay is to examine what the requirements of protection means. Furthermore, it will be examined if there is anything Sweden, as a State Party, can do to improve its compliance with the requirements of protection from all forms of sexual exploitation and sexual abuse of children between the ages 15 and 18. Finally it will also be examined if the proposed changes presented in the committee report Ett starkare skydd för den sexuella integriteten (A stronger protection for the sexual integrity) concerning the 6:th chapter in the Swedish Penal Code, if they are implemented, strengthens the protection from all forms of sexual exploitation and sexual abuse of children between the ages 15 and 18. When answering the essay’s questions from a children’s rights perspective a legal dogmatic method and an international law method has been used. 

The first question examined in the essay concerns the meaning of the requirements of protection from sexual exploitation and sexual abuse. First, it is stated that the protection covers all children until they reach the age 18 or the age of majority. Which acts that are regarded as a form of sexual exploitation or sexual abuse and how children should be protected from these acts is not clarified in the Convention on the Rights of the Child, the legislative history or the handbooks issued by UNICEF. What is clear is that there are many ways to implement the protection. Through its concluding observations to the State Parties the United Nations Committee on the Rights of the Child recommends different actions depending on how the Committee considers that the protection is best implemented in an individual State Party. The requirements of protection from sexual exploitation and sexual abuse are therefore not only about the compliance with the Convention text but also the compliance with the Committee’s recommendations. These recommendations vary not only between State Parties but also over time, as knowledge about how children are best protected increases. This means that compliance with the Convention on the Rights of the Child is a constant ongoing work and the Convention should therefore be seen as a tool for gradually improving children’s conditions. 

When responding to the essay’s second question, whether there is anything Sweden, as a State Party, can do to improve its level of compliance with the requirements of protection from all forms of sexual exploitation and sexual abuse for children between the ages 15 and 18, the balance between the child’s right to sexual self-determination and the child’s right to protection against sexual exploitation and sexual abuse has been central. Children between the ages 15 and 18 are, according to the Convention on the Rights of the Child, considered to be children but are in the Swedish Penal Code considered as adults. Only when they are in a state of dependency of the perpetrator they have an increased protection compared with adults. To examine where the line between compliance with the requirements of protection and non-compliance is and on which side of the line Sweden is, is not considered of interest in this essay. What is considered interesting is what Sweden can do to improve its level of compliance with the requirements of protection from all forms of sexual exploitation and sexual abuse for children between the ages 15 and 18. Regarding this matter Sweden has received extensive criticism and there are many actions that Sweden could take to implement and to improve its level of compliance with the requirements of protection.

The essay’s third and last question relates to the proposed changes presented in the committee report Ett starkare skydd för den sexuella integriteten (A stronger protection for the sexual integrity) concerning the 6:th chapter in the Swedish Penal Code. If these changes are implemented, will the protection from all forms of sexual exploitation and sexual abuse of children between the ages 15 and 18 be strengthened? It is found that the protection will be somewhat strengthened through these changes. This is mostly due to the proposal of using a consent-based regulation, the liability for negligence for some sexual offences and that a special consideration shall be taken when and if an offence has been aimed at a child under the age of 18 when classifying an offence. In practice the effects will probably be small and therefore there are presumably many actions that Sweden could take to implement and to improve the protection from all forms of sexual exploitation and sexual abuse for children between the ages 15 and 18. To further protection for children in this age group, future official reports should keep specific attention to them as this has barely been the case in the previous reports on sexual offences.},
  author       = {Friberg, Moa},
  keyword      = {Straffrätt,Folkrätt,Sexualbrott},
  language     = {swe},
  note         = {Student Paper},
  title        = {I sexualbrottens gränsland - En granskning av skyddet för barn mellan 15 och 18 år mot sexuellt utnyttjande och sexuella övergrepp i Sverige},
  year         = {2017},
}