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Våldtäkt som oaktsamhetsbrott - ett övergrepp?

Hammar, Emelie LU (2017) LAGF03 20172
Department of Law
Faculty of Law
Abstract (Swedish)
En förutsättning för att en person ska kunna straffas för våldtäkt enligt svensk rätt är att denne har begått gärningen med uppsåt. Detta krav medför att gärningsmannen måste ha varit medveten om samtliga omständigheter som inneburit att handlingen var att beakta som våldtäkt. Sådana omständigheter kan vara att den som utsattes tvingades till den sexuella handlingen, sov eller på annat sätt befann sig i en särskilt utsatt situation. Uppsåtskravet gör i praktiken att den tilltalade kan frikännas enbart på grund av ett bristande uppsåt, vilket har lett till debatt och protester, både från allmänheten och från personer inom rättsvetenskapen. Debatten som uppstod ledde till att det år 2014 tillsattes en sexualbrottskommitté, vars uppdrag bland... (More)
En förutsättning för att en person ska kunna straffas för våldtäkt enligt svensk rätt är att denne har begått gärningen med uppsåt. Detta krav medför att gärningsmannen måste ha varit medveten om samtliga omständigheter som inneburit att handlingen var att beakta som våldtäkt. Sådana omständigheter kan vara att den som utsattes tvingades till den sexuella handlingen, sov eller på annat sätt befann sig i en särskilt utsatt situation. Uppsåtskravet gör i praktiken att den tilltalade kan frikännas enbart på grund av ett bristande uppsåt, vilket har lett till debatt och protester, både från allmänheten och från personer inom rättsvetenskapen. Debatten som uppstod ledde till att det år 2014 tillsattes en sexualbrottskommitté, vars uppdrag bland annat var att utreda möjligheten till att införa ett oaktsamhetansvar för våldtäkt.

I tidigare utredningar, som 2008 år sexualbrottsutredning berördes ett oaktsamhetansvar endast övergripande och utredningen tog ställning mot ett sådant införande. Syftet med denna framställning är därför att utreda huruvida den svenska lagstiftningen avseende våldtäkt lämpligen bör ändras till att innehålla ett oaktsamhetansvar med rättssäkerhetsperspektiv som utgångspunkt. Arbetet utreder vilka för- respektive nackdelar som ett införande av ett oaktsamhetsansvar för våldtäkt skulle innebära för svensk rätt.

Avslutningsvis konstateras att ett oaktsamhetansvar vid våldtäkt troligtvis skulle fylla en viktig funktion i svensk rätt ur ett rättssäkerhetsperspektiv. Ett införande av ett oaktsamhetsansvar skulle bidra till att gärningar som bedöms vara klandervärda men idag inte är straffbara, troligen skulle leda till fällande dom i större utsträckning. En bestämmelse om oaktsamhetsansvar är sannolikt ett steg i rätt riktning i utvecklingen av svensk sexualbrottslagstiftning. Det skulle sannolikt även öka skyddet för den sexuella integriteten samt bidra till brottsförebyggande attitydförändringar i samhället. (Less)
Abstract
One of the qualifications required for someone to be convicted of rape is, according to Swedish criminal law, that the person has committed the crime with intent. This means that the person accused of the crime must have been aware of all the circumstances that made the act a rape crime. Such circumstances may be that the victim was forced into the sexual act, was asleep during the assault or was in a particularly vulnerable position. The requirement of intent means that the defendant can be found not guilty only on the basis of lack of intent. This has been the subject of various debates and has caused several protests from the public as well as from people active within the judicial area. The debate in question led to the foundation of a... (More)
One of the qualifications required for someone to be convicted of rape is, according to Swedish criminal law, that the person has committed the crime with intent. This means that the person accused of the crime must have been aware of all the circumstances that made the act a rape crime. Such circumstances may be that the victim was forced into the sexual act, was asleep during the assault or was in a particularly vulnerable position. The requirement of intent means that the defendant can be found not guilty only on the basis of lack of intent. This has been the subject of various debates and has caused several protests from the public as well as from people active within the judicial area. The debate in question led to the foundation of a committee in 2014, whose assignment was to investigate the possibility of criminalizing negligence in the case of rape crimes. From former legal inquiries, like the inquiry of sexual crimes from year 2008, it can be found that the subject of criminalizing negligence only has been touched upon briefly. Furthermore the inquiry itself took a stand against such a provision. Therefore, the purpose of this essay is to investigate whether the Swedish criminal law regarding rape should be adjusted in this manner. This essay investigates positive and negative aspects of including a legal consideration of negligence regarding rape from a perspective of legal security. Moreover it analyzes the possible consequences this may cause the Swedish juridical system.

Finally, it is concluded that negligence regarding rape most probably would constitute an important aspect in Swedish law from a perspective of legal security. The inclusion of negligence regarding rape, would most certainly contribute to more frequent convictions of actions that are considered culpable but are not considered criminal within the existing legal system. A provision like the one mentioned above would likely be a step in the right direction for the Swedish juridical system regarding sexual felonies. Furthermore, it would most probably contribute to a positive change of attitude within society as a whole, which in turn could act as a crime preventative measure itself. (Less)
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author
Hammar, Emelie LU
supervisor
organization
course
LAGF03 20172
year
type
M2 - Bachelor Degree
subject
keywords
Sexualbrott, Straffrätt (en. criminal law), Våldtäkt, Oaktsamhet
language
Swedish
id
8930278
date added to LUP
2018-02-06 14:30:39
date last changed
2018-02-06 14:30:39
@misc{8930278,
  abstract     = {One of the qualifications required for someone to be convicted of rape is, according to Swedish criminal law, that the person has committed the crime with intent. This means that the person accused of the crime must have been aware of all the circumstances that made the act a rape crime. Such circumstances may be that the victim was forced into the sexual act, was asleep during the assault or was in a particularly vulnerable position. The requirement of intent means that the defendant can be found not guilty only on the basis of lack of intent. This has been the subject of various debates and has caused several protests from the public as well as from people active within the judicial area. The debate in question led to the foundation of a committee in 2014, whose assignment was to investigate the possibility of criminalizing negligence in the case of rape crimes. From former legal inquiries, like the inquiry of sexual crimes from year 2008, it can be found that the subject of criminalizing negligence only has been touched upon briefly. Furthermore the inquiry itself took a stand against such a provision. Therefore, the purpose of this essay is to investigate whether the Swedish criminal law regarding rape should be adjusted in this manner. This essay investigates positive and negative aspects of including a legal consideration of negligence regarding rape from a perspective of legal security. Moreover it analyzes the possible consequences this may cause the Swedish juridical system. 

Finally, it is concluded that negligence regarding rape most probably would constitute an important aspect in Swedish law from a perspective of legal security. The inclusion of negligence regarding rape, would most certainly contribute to more frequent convictions of actions that are considered culpable but are not considered criminal within the existing legal system. A provision like the one mentioned above would likely be a step in the right direction for the Swedish juridical system regarding sexual felonies. Furthermore, it would most probably contribute to a positive change of attitude within society as a whole, which in turn could act as a crime preventative measure itself.},
  author       = {Hammar, Emelie},
  keyword      = {Sexualbrott,Straffrätt (en. criminal law),Våldtäkt,Oaktsamhet},
  language     = {swe},
  note         = {Student Paper},
  title        = {Våldtäkt som oaktsamhetsbrott - ett övergrepp?},
  year         = {2017},
}