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Gärningsbeskrivningens utformning – Särskilt om vagheter vid seriebrottslighet

Lundin, Emma LU (2017) JURM02 20172
Department of Law
Faculty of Law
Abstract (Swedish)
Syftet med denna uppsats är att undersöka gärningsbeskrivningens utformning och betydelse för bevisvärderingen i brottmål. Av 45 kap. 4 § RB framgår att åklagaren i sin stämningsansökan ska uppge bland annat den brottsliga gärningen med angivande av tid och plats för dess förövande och de övriga omständigheter som erfordras för dess kännetecknande. Bestämmelsen syftar bland annat till att den tilltalade ska kunna försvara sig mot anklagelserna, vilket kräver att ansvarspåståendet preciseras och individualiseras. Gärningsbeskrivningen har även betydelse för frågan om res judicata och en välskriven sådan är vidare av betydelse för domstolens möjlighet att genomföra en välstrukturerad process.

Hur långt precisionskravet sträcker sig måste... (More)
Syftet med denna uppsats är att undersöka gärningsbeskrivningens utformning och betydelse för bevisvärderingen i brottmål. Av 45 kap. 4 § RB framgår att åklagaren i sin stämningsansökan ska uppge bland annat den brottsliga gärningen med angivande av tid och plats för dess förövande och de övriga omständigheter som erfordras för dess kännetecknande. Bestämmelsen syftar bland annat till att den tilltalade ska kunna försvara sig mot anklagelserna, vilket kräver att ansvarspåståendet preciseras och individualiseras. Gärningsbeskrivningen har även betydelse för frågan om res judicata och en välskriven sådan är vidare av betydelse för domstolens möjlighet att genomföra en välstrukturerad process.

Hur långt precisionskravet sträcker sig måste bedömas utifrån det enskilda fallet. Kravet på individualisering av gärningsbeskrivningen har ett nära samband med frågan om beviskravet i brottmål och åklagarens bevisskyldighet eftersom ett lägre krav på individualisering ofta innebär en bevislättnad för åklagaren i praktiken. Endast det som utgör den brottsliga gärningen ska finnas med i gärningsbeskrivningen eftersom det är genom denna som åklagaren formulerar sitt bevistema och därmed åtar sig en viss bevisbörda. Här finns det brister i praxis.

En gärningsbeskrivning kan vara icke-individualiserad med avseende på tid, plats, brottsrubricering och så kallade rekvisitomständigheter. En gärningsbeskrivning som ställer upp alternativa handlanden godtas i regel av domstolen. Däremot är en gärningsbeskrivning som innehåller alternativa gärningar inte förenlig med kravet på individualisering.

HD har gällande seriebrottslighet i form av våld och sexuella övergrepp i hemmet accepterat och bifallit åtal där gärningsbeskrivningen varit vag i fråga om antal gärningstillfällen, tid, plats eller händelseförlopp. Annan seriebrottslighet i form av till exempel anlagda bränder kräver mer precision med avseende på gärningsbeskrivningen. Ett ansvarspåstående om att AA anlagt brand 1 och/eller brand 2 och/eller brand 3 är således inte godtagbar eftersom en gärningsbeskrivning som uppger alternativa gärningar inte är förenlig med kravet på individualisering. Varför vagheter i gärningsbeskrivningen accepteras i fall gällande våld och sexuella övergrepp i hemmet men inte i fall som med Gryningspyromanen kan bero på att det finns en viss påtryckning från samhällets sida vad gäller sexualbrott. Vidare föreligger vissa förutsättningsskillnader mellan brottstyperna med avseende på möjligheten att anskaffa bevis och därigenom ett högre precisionskrav i fråga om anlagda bränder. Dessutom är det svårt att jämföra våld och sexuella övergrepp i hemmet mot fall som Gryningspyromanen då den största frågan i mål av det förstnämnda slaget är en vad-och-hur-fråga medan det i mål av det sistnämnda slaget är en vem-fråga. Vagheterna i respektive gärningsbeskrivning gäller således olika typer av rättsfrågor. (Less)
Abstract
The purpose of this essay is to investigate the formulation of the statement of the criminal act as charged and its impact on the sifting of evidence in criminal cases. 45:4 RB states that the prosecutor, among other things, in his summons application indictment must state the criminal act with an indication of time and place for the perpetration and the other circumstances which are required. The purpose of this regulation is to enable the defendant to defend himself against the accusations, which requires the statement of the criminal act as charged to be specified and individualized. The statement of the criminal act as charge is also important regarding the question about res judicata and a well-written one is furthermore of outmost... (More)
The purpose of this essay is to investigate the formulation of the statement of the criminal act as charged and its impact on the sifting of evidence in criminal cases. 45:4 RB states that the prosecutor, among other things, in his summons application indictment must state the criminal act with an indication of time and place for the perpetration and the other circumstances which are required. The purpose of this regulation is to enable the defendant to defend himself against the accusations, which requires the statement of the criminal act as charged to be specified and individualized. The statement of the criminal act as charge is also important regarding the question about res judicata and a well-written one is furthermore of outmost importance for the court’s ability to carry a well-structured process.

How far the precision requirement extends must be assessed on the basis of the individual case. The requirement for individualization of the statement of the criminal act as charged is closely linked to the question about the evidentiary requirement in criminal cases and the prosecutor’s burden of proof – since a lower requirement of individualization usually provides an alleviation of evidentiary burden for the prosecutor. Only the things that constitutes the criminal act should be included in the statement of the criminal act as charged because it is through this that the prosecutor formulates the theme of proof and thereby undertakes a certain burden of proof. Here, there are shortcomings in court practice.

A statement of the criminal act as charged can be non-individualized in terms of time, place, classification of a crime and other necessary conditions. A statement of the criminal act as charged which sets up alternative ways of acting is generally accepted by the court. On the other hand, is a statement of the criminal act as charged which contains alternative actions not compatible with the requirement of individualization.

The supreme court has regarding series crime in terms of violence and sexual abuse at home accepted and approved prosecutions where the statement of the criminal act as charged was vague in terms of numbers of actions, time, place or course of event. Other types of series crime such as arsons require more precision regarding the statement of the criminal act as charged. A statement of the criminal act as charged which states that AA started fire 1 and/or fire 2 and/or fire 3 is not accepted because it contains alternative actions which is not compatible with the requirement of individualization. Why vagaries are accepted in the statement of the criminal act as charged when it comes to cases regarding violence and sexual abuse at home but not in the case with Gryningspyromanen might be because of a pressure from the society when it comes to sexual offences. Furthermore, there are certain differences between the types of the criminal cases when it comes to the opportunity to procure evidence and therefore there is a higher precision requirement regarding arsons. Additionally, it is difficult to compare violence and sexual abuse at home with cases such as Gryningspyromanen since the main question in the former case is a what-and-how-question whilst the main question in the latter case is a who-question. Thus, the vagueness in the respective statement of the criminal act as charged apply to different kinds of legal questions. (Less)
Please use this url to cite or link to this publication:
author
Lundin, Emma LU
supervisor
organization
alternative title
The formulation of the statement of the criminal act as charged – Particularly about vagueness in series crime
course
JURM02 20172
year
type
H3 - Professional qualifications (4 Years - )
subject
keywords
straffrätt, bevisrätt, processrätt
language
Swedish
id
8930312
date added to LUP
2018-01-29 14:41:28
date last changed
2018-01-29 14:41:28
@misc{8930312,
  abstract     = {The purpose of this essay is to investigate the formulation of the statement of the criminal act as charged and its impact on the sifting of evidence in criminal cases. 45:4 RB states that the prosecutor, among other things, in his summons application indictment must state the criminal act with an indication of time and place for the perpetration and the other circumstances which are required. The purpose of this regulation is to enable the defendant to defend himself against the accusations, which requires the statement of the criminal act as charged to be specified and individualized. The statement of the criminal act as charge is also important regarding the question about res judicata and a well-written one is furthermore of outmost importance for the court’s ability to carry a well-structured process. 

How far the precision requirement extends must be assessed on the basis of the individual case. The requirement for individualization of the statement of the criminal act as charged is closely linked to the question about the evidentiary requirement in criminal cases and the prosecutor’s burden of proof – since a lower requirement of individualization usually provides an alleviation of evidentiary burden for the prosecutor. Only the things that constitutes the criminal act should be included in the statement of the criminal act as charged because it is through this that the prosecutor formulates the theme of proof and thereby undertakes a certain burden of proof. Here, there are shortcomings in court practice.

A statement of the criminal act as charged can be non-individualized in terms of time, place, classification of a crime and other necessary conditions. A statement of the criminal act as charged which sets up alternative ways of acting is generally accepted by the court. On the other hand, is a statement of the criminal act as charged which contains alternative actions not compatible with the requirement of individualization. 

The supreme court has regarding series crime in terms of violence and sexual abuse at home accepted and approved prosecutions where the statement of the criminal act as charged was vague in terms of numbers of actions, time, place or course of event. Other types of series crime such as arsons require more precision regarding the statement of the criminal act as charged. A statement of the criminal act as charged which states that AA started fire 1 and/or fire 2 and/or fire 3 is not accepted because it contains alternative actions which is not compatible with the requirement of individualization. Why vagaries are accepted in the statement of the criminal act as charged when it comes to cases regarding violence and sexual abuse at home but not in the case with Gryningspyromanen might be because of a pressure from the society when it comes to sexual offences. Furthermore, there are certain differences between the types of the criminal cases when it comes to the opportunity to procure evidence and therefore there is a higher precision requirement regarding arsons. Additionally, it is difficult to compare violence and sexual abuse at home with cases such as Gryningspyromanen since the main question in the former case is a what-and-how-question whilst the main question in the latter case is a who-question. Thus, the vagueness in the respective statement of the criminal act as charged apply to different kinds of legal questions.},
  author       = {Lundin, Emma},
  keyword      = {straffrätt,bevisrätt,processrätt},
  language     = {swe},
  note         = {Student Paper},
  title        = {Gärningsbeskrivningens utformning – Särskilt om vagheter vid seriebrottslighet},
  year         = {2017},
}