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Framtidsfullmakter - En jämförande utredning mot godmanskap och rättssäkerheten ur fullmaktsgivarens perspektiv

Cronholm, Jens LU (2017) LAGF03 20172
Department of Law
Faculty of Law
Abstract (Swedish)
Den svenska förmyndarskapsrätten står inför en stor utmaning de närmast kommande åren. Den svenska demografiska utvecklingen innebär en ökad grupp äldre, vilket medför ett ökat behov av ställföreträdarskap. Härav har regeringen anfört att det behövs ett nytt, kompletterande alternativ för ställföreträdare vilket har instiftats genom lag av framtidsfullmakter. Framtidsfullmakter är ett institut som återfinns i flertalet länder, men för Sverige trädde lagen i kraft först 1 juli 2017.

Denna uppsatts syftar att genomföra en jämförande utredning avseende framtidsfullmakter och godmanskap, för att utröna skillnader och likheter mellan instituten. Den syftar även att utreda ifall rättssäkerheten uppfylls utifrån fullmaktsgivarens perspektiv... (More)
Den svenska förmyndarskapsrätten står inför en stor utmaning de närmast kommande åren. Den svenska demografiska utvecklingen innebär en ökad grupp äldre, vilket medför ett ökat behov av ställföreträdarskap. Härav har regeringen anfört att det behövs ett nytt, kompletterande alternativ för ställföreträdare vilket har instiftats genom lag av framtidsfullmakter. Framtidsfullmakter är ett institut som återfinns i flertalet länder, men för Sverige trädde lagen i kraft först 1 juli 2017.

Denna uppsatts syftar att genomföra en jämförande utredning avseende framtidsfullmakter och godmanskap, för att utröna skillnader och likheter mellan instituten. Den syftar även att utreda ifall rättssäkerheten uppfylls utifrån fullmaktsgivarens perspektiv för ett par specifika situationer. Uppsatsens genomförs i enighet med rättsdogmatiskt metod.

Framtidsfullmakter är en form av fullmakt där fullmaktsgivaren lämnas möjlighet att ställa ut en fullmakt som träder i kraft för en framtida tidpunkt. En framtidsfullmakt kan reglera både privata och ekonomiska frågor. Fullmakten börjar verka då fullmaktsgivaren inte längre har en förmåga att ta hand om sina angelägenheter, när denne blir beslutsoförmögen. Lagen har en privaträttslig inriktning, den har skapats med en bakgrundstanke att minska den allmänna inbladningen i syfta att stärka de enskildas självbestämmanderätt. Härigenom kan det dock uppstå problematik. Detta eftersom fullmaktsgivaren sätts i en utsatt position, hälsotillståndet som föranleder fullmaktens ikraftträdande innebär även en minskad möjlighet att påtala missförhållanden inom fullmakten. Detta sammantaget med att framtidsfullmakter har ett litet mått av allmän kontroll kan medföra att framtidsfullmaktsgivaren kvarstår i ett missgynnande fullmaktsförhållande. Såldes är det eftersträvansvärt att undersöka rättssäkerheten ur fullmaktsgivarens perspektiv.

Den nu ikraftträdda lagen har viss problematik avseende fullmaktsgivarens rättssäkerhet. Detta tar sin form först och främst genom fullmaktsgivarens möjlighet att återkalla fullmakten. Då fullmakten ska träda i kraft när den hjälpbehövande är beslutsoförmögen, kan det uppstå situationer där fullmaktshavaren inte godtar återkallelsen. Denna situation är tänkt att lösas genom möjligheten att utse granskare och genom överförmyndarens agerande. Men granskningsfunktionen är även befäst med problematik, då möjligheter för granskares och överförmyndarens insyn är begränsade. I praktiken kommer denna kontrollmekanism vara beroende på av en extern part som påtalar missförhållanden. Slutligen finns det problematik avseende ikraftträdandet av fullmakten och upprättandet, för de fall dessa sker i nära tidsanslutning. Härigenom ska fullmaktshavaren både besluta om fullmaktsgivarens rättshandlingsförmåga att upprätta en fullmakt, men även beslutsoförmågan vilket förutsätter ikraftträdandet. Följaktligen kommer detta medföra ett svårbedömt beslut, vilket kan tänkas påverka förutsägbarheten och därmed rättssäkerheten. (Less)
Abstract
The Swedish law of guardianship stands before a great challenge the coming years. The demographical development in Sweden entails demographical group of elderly, which means an increased requirement of guardianships. Thus, the Swedish government has proclaimed the need of new complement law of guardianship, which has taken the form of lag om framtidsfullmakter. Framtidsfullmakter is an instrument of law which can be found in several different countries but in Sweden the law came into force the first of July 2017.

The purpose of this thesis is to carry out a comparative investigation of framtidsfullmakter and curatorship, to provide a basis of the differences and similarities between the institutions. Also, the thesis aims to provide an... (More)
The Swedish law of guardianship stands before a great challenge the coming years. The demographical development in Sweden entails demographical group of elderly, which means an increased requirement of guardianships. Thus, the Swedish government has proclaimed the need of new complement law of guardianship, which has taken the form of lag om framtidsfullmakter. Framtidsfullmakter is an instrument of law which can be found in several different countries but in Sweden the law came into force the first of July 2017.

The purpose of this thesis is to carry out a comparative investigation of framtidsfullmakter and curatorship, to provide a basis of the differences and similarities between the institutions. Also, the thesis aims to provide an investigation in regards to the rule of law on the basis of the grantor of the proxy. A legal dogmatic method has been used to achieve the purpose of the thesis.

Framtidsfullmakter gives individuals the opportunity to constitute a proxy which will come into effect at a future point of time. A Framtidsfullmakt can regulate matters of both economical and personal aspects. The proxy comes into effect when the grantor is deemed unable to care for their own affairs. The framtidsfullmakt emphasizes aspects of civil law, it has been created with a principle of thought to decrease the amount of public intervention with the purpose to increase the right to self-determination. Hereby problems may arise. Since the grantor of the proxy is in a vulnerable position. This is because of the fact that the health status that cause the proxy to come into effect also entails a decreased opportunity for the grantor to communicate abuse in regards of the proxy. This comprised with the fact that Framtidsfullmakter has a minimal element of public intervention may result in a situation where the grantor may remain in a disadvantaged guardianship. Thus, it is needful to investigate the rule of law from the grantors perspective.

The law of framtidsfullmakt, is connected with problem in regards of the grantors procedural safeguards. Primarily this shows in regards to the grantors ability to withdraw the proxy. Since the proxy comes into force when the grantors is deemed unable to care for their own affairs, there may arise situations where the proxy agent declines the grantors wish to withdraw the proxy. This situation is sought to be dealt with by the admission of an examiner and the regulatory of the chief guardian. But this construction is constituted with flaws, in regard to the examiner and chief guardian ability to gain information about the proxy. In practice, this control mechanism will be depending on communication from a third part. Finally, there is problem surrounding the establishment of the proxy and the coming into force of the proxy, for situations in close frame of time. Hereby the proxy agent has to decide both the grantors legal competence as well as the inability to care for their own affairs, which is needed for the coming into force. Thus, this will result in a situation where the proxy agent will be forced to make a decision which is difficult to asses. This may implicate the predictability of the institution as well as the compliance with the rule of law. (Less)
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author
Cronholm, Jens LU
supervisor
organization
course
LAGF03 20172
year
type
M2 - Bachelor Degree
subject
keywords
Familjerätt, Framtidsfullmakt, Godmanskap, Rättssäkerhet
language
Swedish
id
8930424
date added to LUP
2018-02-06 14:28:00
date last changed
2018-02-06 14:28:00
@misc{8930424,
  abstract     = {The Swedish law of guardianship stands before a great challenge the coming years. The demographical development in Sweden entails demographical group of elderly, which means an increased requirement of guardianships. Thus, the Swedish government has proclaimed the need of new complement law of guardianship, which has taken the form of lag om framtidsfullmakter. Framtidsfullmakter is an instrument of law which can be found in several different countries but in Sweden the law came into force the first of July 2017. 

The purpose of this thesis is to carry out a comparative investigation of framtidsfullmakter and curatorship, to provide a basis of the differences and similarities between the institutions. Also, the thesis aims to provide an investigation in regards to the rule of law on the basis of the grantor of the proxy. A legal dogmatic method has been used to achieve the purpose of the thesis.

Framtidsfullmakter gives individuals the opportunity to constitute a proxy which will come into effect at a future point of time. A Framtidsfullmakt can regulate matters of both economical and personal aspects. The proxy comes into effect when the grantor is deemed unable to care for their own affairs. The framtidsfullmakt emphasizes aspects of civil law, it has been created with a principle of thought to decrease the amount of public intervention with the purpose to increase the right to self-determination. Hereby problems may arise. Since the grantor of the proxy is in a vulnerable position. This is because of the fact that the health status that cause the proxy to come into effect also entails a decreased opportunity for the grantor to communicate abuse in regards of the proxy. This comprised with the fact that Framtidsfullmakter has a minimal element of public intervention may result in a situation where the grantor may remain in a disadvantaged guardianship. Thus, it is needful to investigate the rule of law from the grantors perspective. 

The law of framtidsfullmakt, is connected with problem in regards of the grantors procedural safeguards. Primarily this shows in regards to the grantors ability to withdraw the proxy. Since the proxy comes into force when the grantors is deemed unable to care for their own affairs, there may arise situations where the proxy agent declines the grantors wish to withdraw the proxy. This situation is sought to be dealt with by the admission of an examiner and the regulatory of the chief guardian. But this construction is constituted with flaws, in regard to the examiner and chief guardian ability to gain information about the proxy. In practice, this control mechanism will be depending on communication from a third part. Finally, there is problem surrounding the establishment of the proxy and the coming into force of the proxy, for situations in close frame of time. Hereby the proxy agent has to decide both the grantors legal competence as well as the inability to care for their own affairs, which is needed for the coming into force. Thus, this will result in a situation where the proxy agent will be forced to make a decision which is difficult to asses. This may implicate the predictability of the institution as well as the compliance with the rule of law.},
  author       = {Cronholm, Jens},
  keyword      = {Familjerätt,Framtidsfullmakt,Godmanskap,Rättssäkerhet},
  language     = {swe},
  note         = {Student Paper},
  title        = {Framtidsfullmakter - En jämförande utredning mot godmanskap och rättssäkerheten ur fullmaktsgivarens perspektiv},
  year         = {2017},
}