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Måste jag vittna? - Om det svenska vittnesförfarandet och de rättssäkerhetsintressen som hamnar i konflikt vid användningen av anonyma vittnesmål

Mc Kenzie, David LU (2017) LAGF03 20172
Department of Law
Faculty of Law
Abstract (Swedish)
Att vittna är, med vissa få undantag, en samhällelig skyldighet. Samtidigt händer det att vittnen utsätts för hot och repressalier på grund av sina förestående vittnesmål. Detta har lett till att möjligheten att vittna anonymt uppmärksammats. Anonyma vittnesmål är idag inte tillåtna i den svenska brottmålsprocessen. Både lagregler och processrättsliga principer sätter stopp för ett sådant förfarande. Sedan mitten av nittiotalet har Europakonventionen haft ett stort inflytande över svensk rätt. Europadomstolen tillåter genom sin tolkning av artikel 6 EKMR att anonyma vittnen, i exceptionella fall, används som bevismedel vid huvudförhandlingar. Statens offentliga utredningar har, trots Europadomstolens godkännande, bibehållit en negativ... (More)
Att vittna är, med vissa få undantag, en samhällelig skyldighet. Samtidigt händer det att vittnen utsätts för hot och repressalier på grund av sina förestående vittnesmål. Detta har lett till att möjligheten att vittna anonymt uppmärksammats. Anonyma vittnesmål är idag inte tillåtna i den svenska brottmålsprocessen. Både lagregler och processrättsliga principer sätter stopp för ett sådant förfarande. Sedan mitten av nittiotalet har Europakonventionen haft ett stort inflytande över svensk rätt. Europadomstolen tillåter genom sin tolkning av artikel 6 EKMR att anonyma vittnen, i exceptionella fall, används som bevismedel vid huvudförhandlingar. Statens offentliga utredningar har, trots Europadomstolens godkännande, bibehållit en negativ inställning gällande ett införande av ett system med anonyma vittnen i svensk rätt. Anonyma vittnen anses vara ett hot mot rättssäkerheten i det svenska rättssystemet.

Genom en rättsdogmatisk metod undersöker uppsatsen vilka processrättsliga principer, rättsregler och rättssäkerhetsintressen som förhindrar införandet av ett processuellt förfarande som tillåter anonyma vittnesmål i Sverige. Detta huvudsakligen genom studier av doktrin, statliga utredningar och praxis från svenska domstolar. Uppsatsen behandlar även för Europadomstolspraxis för att redogöra för hur domstolen funnit att anonyma vittnesmål i exceptionella fall inte strider mot EKMR.

Undersökningar av Statens offentliga utredningar har lett fram till slutsatsen att det främst är principen om partsinsyn tillsammans med den ringa omfattningen av hot mot vittnen som föranlett den svenska statens negativa inställning till införandet av ett processuellt system som tillåter anonyma vittnen. Principen om partsinsyn anses vara av sådan grundläggande betydelse att en inskränkning av principen anses äventyra rättssäkerheten i den svenska brottmålsprocessen. Samtidigt medger staten att tungt vägande intressen kan leda till en inskränkning av principen och att även vittnens rätt till säkerhet är ett rättssäkerhetsintresse som staten måste ta hänsyn till. I Statens offentliga utredningar har det framhållits att frågan anonyma vittnen inte är färdigutredd. Uppsatsen presenterar även riksdagsmotioner som pekar på att hot mot vittnen har ökat vilket kan betyda på att en ny statlig utredning behövs. (Less)
Abstract
To give testimony is, with a few exceptions, a social obligation. At the same time, witnesses are sometimes exposed to threats and reprisals because of their upcoming testimonies. This has led to attention being given to the possibility to bear witness anonymously. Anonymously made testimonies are not permitted in Swedish criminal proceedings today. Both legal rules and procedural principles prohibits such proceedings. Since the mid-nineties the European Convention (ECHR) has had a major influence on Swedish law. Through its interpretation of Article 6 ECHR the European Court of Human Rights allows anonymous witnesses to, in exceptional cases, be used as evidence at main hearings. Official Reports of the Swedish Government has, despite the... (More)
To give testimony is, with a few exceptions, a social obligation. At the same time, witnesses are sometimes exposed to threats and reprisals because of their upcoming testimonies. This has led to attention being given to the possibility to bear witness anonymously. Anonymously made testimonies are not permitted in Swedish criminal proceedings today. Both legal rules and procedural principles prohibits such proceedings. Since the mid-nineties the European Convention (ECHR) has had a major influence on Swedish law. Through its interpretation of Article 6 ECHR the European Court of Human Rights allows anonymous witnesses to, in exceptional cases, be used as evidence at main hearings. Official Reports of the Swedish Government has, despite the European Court of Human Rights’ approval, maintained a negative attitude regarding an adoption of a system with anonymous witnesses into the Swedish law. Anonymous witnesses are considered a threat to the Swedish rule of law.

Through a legal-judicial method this thesis is to exam the procedural principles, legal rules and the interests assuring the rule of law that are preventing the imposition of a procedural proceeding allowing anonymous testimonies in Sweden. This is done mainly by studies of legal doctrine, governmental reports and cases from Swedish courts. The thesis will also account for cases from the European Court of Human Rights to clarify how the court has found anonymous testimonies, in exceptional case, not to lead to a violation of the ECHR.

Through studies of Official Reports of the Swedish Government the conclusion is that it is mainly the principle of party transparency in combination with the low magnitude of threats against witnesses that has led to the negative approach of the Swedish state regarding an adoption of a procedural system allowing anonymous witnesses. The principle of party transparency is considered to be of such fundamental importance that a restriction of the principle is considered to jeopardize the rule of law in the Swedish criminal proceedings process. At the same time, the state admits that important interests can lead to a limitation of the principle and that the right to security for witnesses is of interest for the rule of law and must be taken into account by the state. Official Reports of the Swedish Government has accentuated that the question of anonymous witnesses is to investigate further. The thesis will also present motions submitted by the parliament that shows how threats against witnesses has increased in recent years which may imply that a new Official Report of the Swedish Government is needed. (Less)
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author
Mc Kenzie, David LU
supervisor
organization
course
LAGF03 20172
year
type
M2 - Bachelor Degree
subject
keywords
Straffrätt
language
Swedish
id
8930581
date added to LUP
2018-02-06 14:23:38
date last changed
2018-02-06 14:23:38
@misc{8930581,
  abstract     = {To give testimony is, with a few exceptions, a social obligation. At the same time, witnesses are sometimes exposed to threats and reprisals because of their upcoming testimonies. This has led to attention being given to the possibility to bear witness anonymously. Anonymously made testimonies are not permitted in Swedish criminal proceedings today. Both legal rules and procedural principles prohibits such proceedings. Since the mid-nineties the European Convention (ECHR) has had a major influence on Swedish law. Through its interpretation of Article 6 ECHR the European Court of Human Rights allows anonymous witnesses to, in exceptional cases, be used as evidence at main hearings. Official Reports of the Swedish Government has, despite the European Court of Human Rights’ approval, maintained a negative attitude regarding an adoption of a system with anonymous witnesses into the Swedish law. Anonymous witnesses are considered a threat to the Swedish rule of law.

Through a legal-judicial method this thesis is to exam the procedural principles, legal rules and the interests assuring the rule of law that are preventing the imposition of a procedural proceeding allowing anonymous testimonies in Sweden. This is done mainly by studies of legal doctrine, governmental reports and cases from Swedish courts. The thesis will also account for cases from the European Court of Human Rights to clarify how the court has found anonymous testimonies, in exceptional case, not to lead to a violation of the ECHR.

Through studies of Official Reports of the Swedish Government the conclusion is that it is mainly the principle of party transparency in combination with the low magnitude of threats against witnesses that has led to the negative approach of the Swedish state regarding an adoption of a procedural system allowing anonymous witnesses. The principle of party transparency is considered to be of such fundamental importance that a restriction of the principle is considered to jeopardize the rule of law in the Swedish criminal proceedings process. At the same time, the state admits that important interests can lead to a limitation of the principle and that the right to security for witnesses is of interest for the rule of law and must be taken into account by the state. Official Reports of the Swedish Government has accentuated that the question of anonymous witnesses is to investigate further. The thesis will also present motions submitted by the parliament that shows how threats against witnesses has increased in recent years which may imply that a new Official Report of the Swedish Government is needed.},
  author       = {Mc Kenzie, David},
  keyword      = {Straffrätt},
  language     = {swe},
  note         = {Student Paper},
  title        = {Måste jag vittna? - Om det svenska vittnesförfarandet och de rättssäkerhetsintressen som hamnar i konflikt vid användningen av anonyma vittnesmål},
  year         = {2017},
}