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Handlingskrav trots handelskrav? - Interaktion mellan energihushållningsvillkor i verksamhetstillstånd och EU:s system för handel med utsläppsrätter

Reutervik, Viktor LU (2017) JURM02 20172
Department of Law
Faculty of Law
Abstract (Swedish)
Europeiska Unionens system för handel med utsläppsrätter, EU ETS, syftar till att på ett kostnadseffektivt sätt reducera mängden växthusgaser som släpps ut av industriella verksamheter runt om i unionen. Interaktioner med andra styrmedel befaras kunna minska systemets effektivitet, därför har unionen försökt undvika sådana. Trots detta har svenska myndigheter ansett sig både berättigade och motiverade att föreskriva villkor om energihushållning för verksamheter som omfattas av handelssystemet. Energihushållningsvillkor i verksamhetstillstånd kan i många fall innebära en indirekt reglering av mängden utsläppta växthus¬gaser och därmed minska efterfrågan på utsläpps¬rätter inom systemet. En minskad efterfrågan kan leda till ett sänkt pris på... (More)
Europeiska Unionens system för handel med utsläppsrätter, EU ETS, syftar till att på ett kostnadseffektivt sätt reducera mängden växthusgaser som släpps ut av industriella verksamheter runt om i unionen. Interaktioner med andra styrmedel befaras kunna minska systemets effektivitet, därför har unionen försökt undvika sådana. Trots detta har svenska myndigheter ansett sig både berättigade och motiverade att föreskriva villkor om energihushållning för verksamheter som omfattas av handelssystemet. Energihushållningsvillkor i verksamhetstillstånd kan i många fall innebära en indirekt reglering av mängden utsläppta växthus¬gaser och därmed minska efterfrågan på utsläpps¬rätter inom systemet. En minskad efterfrågan kan leda till ett sänkt pris på utsläppsrätter och därmed minskade incitament från systemet att reducera sina utsläpp. Den centrala frågeställningen är i detta arbete huruvida man bör föreskriva energihushållnings¬villkor för verksamheter som omfattas av handelssystemet. Frågeställningen besvaras dels genom att den rättsliga bakgrunden undersöks för att avgöra vilket utrymme som egentligen finns för att föreskriva dessa villkor, och dels genom att kombinationen av de två styrmedlen undersöks i förhållande till de mål de är tänkta att uppnå. Detta görs med hjälp av rättsanalytisk metod samt en bredare miljörättslig metod där materialet utgörs av empiriska studier och teoretiska framställningar från flera vetenskapliga discipliner.

Arbetet inleds med en undersökning av frågan varför förändringar i det kollektiva beteendet behövs och vilka mål som ställts upp i fråga om klimatutsläpp och energihushållning. De huvudsakliga anledningarna till att förespråka reduc¬eringar är miljöpåverkan, försörjningstrygghet och ekono¬misk effekt¬ivitet. Sammanfattningsvis krävs stora åtgärder och ökade ansträng¬ningar för att uppnå målet hållbar utveckling. Arbetets andra del behandlar konceptet styrmedel och styrmedelssystem. För- och nackdelar med olika typer av styrmedel diskuteras utifrån en klassisk uppdelning mellan rättsliga, ekonomiska och övriga styrmedel. Här konstateras att den teoretiska dikotomin mellan rättsliga och ekonomiska styrmedel inte helt motsvarar de verkliga förhållandena. Det kan därför vara en fördel att se dessa kategorier som mindre distinkta och avskilda än vad de ibland framställs som. Trots att det ibland hävdas att ett handelssystem får bäst effekt om det får fungera ostört finns det många exempel i litteratur på förespråkanden av styrmedels¬kombinationer. I denna del presenteras också en sekventiell filtermodell som hjälp för att illustrera hur styrmedels¬kombinationer kan ses ur ett system¬perspektiv och därmed förstås bättre.

Uppsatsen behandlar därefter de två styrmedlen separat. Efter en redogörelse för handelssystemets grundläggande idéer och regelverk diskuteras vilka effekter det är tänkt att ge, hur utfallet varit och i vilken mån det kan finnas anledning att införa kompletterande styrmedel. Slutsatsen är att systemet i teorin anses optimalt av de allra flesta, men i praktiken har styrni¬ngs¬¬effekterna uteblivit på grund av generösa tilldelningar av utsläpps¬rätter som resulterat i låga priser. Kompletterande styrmedel skulle därför kunna vara intressanta.

Efter detta utredes det gällande rättsläget avseende energihushållningsvillkor och det framkommer att utrymmet för att ställa sådana krav är relativt stort men begränsas av rimlighetsavvägningen. Dessutom konstateras att rätts¬läget, till följd av miljöbalkens mål om att främja hållbar utveckling, beror av utfallet av en styrmedelanalys. En styrmedelsanalys av energihushållnings¬villkoren tyder på att villkoren trots möjliga problem med stelhet, icke-optimal kostnads¬effektivitet och resurskrävande processer kan vara använd¬bara som komplement till ett handelssystem. Detta särskilt om handels¬systemet, som i nuläget, inte bidrar till avsedda effekter och kostnads¬effektiviteten ändå uteblir.

I det avslutande kapitlet diskuteras huvudsakligen frågan huruvida energi-hushållningsvillkor bör föreskrivas för verksamheter som omfattas av EU ETS. Argumenten för att handels¬systemet ska få verka ostört har svag bäring till följd av hur systemet i praktiken kommit att präglas av låga priser och små styrningseffekter samt att taket för utsläppen ändå inte påverkas. En genomgång av utvärderings¬kriterier för styrmedel visar att riskerna med kombinationen är små samtidigt som energihushållningsvillkor kan medföra positiva effekter för alternativa mål. Dessutom präglas inte villkors¬stagandena av de problem med politiska avvägningar som hindrar handels¬systemet från att fungera effektivt. Ett systemperspektiv på styrmedlen avslöjar att de båda fyller flera funktioner och kan ge en mängd olika effekter. Handelssystemet fungerar, oavsett i vilken mån det uppmuntrar till en kostn¬ad¬seffektiv lösning, som en garanti för att de mål som sätts upp nås genom den kollektiva gräns som taket utgör. När denna säkerhetsspärr finns kan mer individuellt inriktade åtgärder som energihushållningsvillkor koncentreras till att genomföra alternativa mål, mer precisa justeringar av systemet eller införa nya tidsperspektiv. Om dessa föreskrivs på ett genom¬tänkt sätt kan styrmed¬lens olika styrkor komplettera varandra. (Less)
Abstract
The European Union Emissions Trading System, the EU ETS, is designed to reduce the amount of greenhouse gases emitted by industrial activity across the union in a cost-efficient way. Interactions with other governance instruments could potentially reduce the efficiency of the system. For this reason, the union has tried to avoid these types of interactions. Despite this, Swedish authorities has considered it justified to prescribe conditions for energy conservation in environmental permits for activities already covered by the trading system. These energy conversation conditions could in many cases mean indirect regulation of the amount of greenhouse gases emitted, thus reducing demand for emission allowances. In turn this could lead to... (More)
The European Union Emissions Trading System, the EU ETS, is designed to reduce the amount of greenhouse gases emitted by industrial activity across the union in a cost-efficient way. Interactions with other governance instruments could potentially reduce the efficiency of the system. For this reason, the union has tried to avoid these types of interactions. Despite this, Swedish authorities has considered it justified to prescribe conditions for energy conservation in environmental permits for activities already covered by the trading system. These energy conversation conditions could in many cases mean indirect regulation of the amount of greenhouse gases emitted, thus reducing demand for emission allowances. In turn this could lead to decreasing prices and the incentives given by the system to reduce emissions could thereby be lowered. The main research question in this essay is whether energy conservation conditions should be prescribed for activities already covered by the trading system. The question is partly answered by an examination of what legal scope there is for prescribing these conditions and partly by an examination of the combination of the two instruments in relation to what goals are meant to be achieved with the help of them. This is done by means of legal analysis in combination with a wider environmental law perspective which considers empirical and theoretical material from other sciences in addition to sources of law.

The essay begins with an examination of the question why collective behavior needs to change concerning energy use and emitting of greenhouse gases and what targets are set up in these matters. The main reasons for advocating for reductions is environmental impact, security of supply and economic efficiency. In summary, major measures and increased efforts are needed if we are to achieve the goal of sustainable development. The second part of the essay deals with the concept of governance instruments and systems of governance instruments. Pros and cons with different types of instruments are discussed based on a classic division between legal, economic, and other instruments. Here the findings suggest that the theoretical dichotomy between legal and economic instruments does not fully reflect the real-world circumstances. For that reason, it could be wise to view these categories as being less distinct and divided from each other than they are sometimes described as. Even thou it is sometimes claimed that the trading system gives the best outcome if it is undisturbed, there are many examples in literature where combinations of governance instruments are advocated for. This chapter also introduces a model of sequential filters as a way of illustrating how the combination of instruments can be viewed from a system perspective and thus better understood.

Following this, the two instruments are discussed separately. After an account of the basic ideas and the regulations of the trading system it is discussed, from a governance instrument perspective, what effects the system is meant to have, how the outcome has been, and to what extent there may be room for adding additional instruments. From the findings in this chapter the conclusion is drawn that the system in theory is considered optimal by most authors. In practice thou, the steering effects has been absent due to generous allocations of allowances. Therefore, complementary instruments could be argued for.

After this the current legal standing concerning energy conservation cond-itions is examined. It is suggested that the scope for prescribing such conditions is quite large but limited by the requirement of economic reasonableness stated in the environmental code. Furthermore, it is argued that the application of the law should depend on the outcome of the analysis of the instrument combination. This due to the statuary goal of the environmental code, which is to promote sustainable development. An analysis of the conditions as governance instruments suggests that, despite potential problem with staleness, non-optimal cost-effectiveness, and resource demanding processes, they could be useful as complements to the trading system. This especially in a situation as the current, where the trading system fail to promote cost-effectiveness.

The closing chapter discusses the research question: Should energy conser-vation conditions be prescribed for activities already covered by the trading system? The arguments for not disturbing the trading system are weak since it in practice has been characterized by low prices and non-sufficient steering effects while the emission ceiling stays unaffected no matter what. A look at different criteria for reviewing governance instruments suggests that there is low risk for negative consequences in using a combination while the energy conservation conditions could have positive effects on alternative goals. In addition, conservation conditions are not haunted by the political conside¬rations resulting in a non-functioning trading system. A system perspective on the instruments shows that they both have multiple functions and can provide a variety of effects. Regardless of its impact on cost-effectiveness, the trading system works as a guarantee for achieving the overall set up goals because of the collective ceiling. With this safety measure already in place other more individually targeting instruments as the energy conservation conditions can be used to achieve alternative goals, make small more precise adjustments of the system, or introduce a perspective that looks further ahead. If provided in a well-thought-out manner, the various strengths of the instruments can complement each other. (Less)
Please use this url to cite or link to this publication:
author
Reutervik, Viktor LU
supervisor
organization
alternative title
Interactions between energy conservation permit conditions and the EU ETS
course
JURM02 20172
year
type
H3 - Professional qualifications (4 Years - )
subject
keywords
Miljörätt, EU-rätt, rättsvetenskap, EU ETS, Styrmedel, Energi
language
Swedish
id
8930780
date added to LUP
2018-01-22 13:30:20
date last changed
2018-01-22 13:30:20
@misc{8930780,
  abstract     = {The European Union Emissions Trading System, the EU ETS, is designed to reduce the amount of greenhouse gases emitted by industrial activity across the union in a cost-efficient way. Interactions with other governance instruments could potentially reduce the efficiency of the system. For this reason, the union has tried to avoid these types of interactions. Despite this, Swedish authorities has considered it justified to prescribe conditions for energy conservation in environmental permits for activities already covered by the trading system. These energy conversation conditions could in many cases mean indirect regulation of the amount of greenhouse gases emitted, thus reducing demand for emission allowances. In turn this could lead to decreasing prices and the incentives given by the system to reduce emissions could thereby be lowered. The main research question in this essay is whether energy conservation conditions should be prescribed for activities already covered by the trading system. The question is partly answered by an examination of what legal scope there is for prescribing these conditions and partly by an examination of the combination of the two instruments in relation to what goals are meant to be achieved with the help of them. This is done by means of legal analysis in combination with a wider environmental law perspective which considers empirical and theoretical material from other sciences in addition to sources of law.

The essay begins with an examination of the question why collective behavior needs to change concerning energy use and emitting of greenhouse gases and what targets are set up in these matters. The main reasons for advocating for reductions is environmental impact, security of supply and economic efficiency. In summary, major measures and increased efforts are needed if we are to achieve the goal of sustainable development. The second part of the essay deals with the concept of governance instruments and systems of governance instruments. Pros and cons with different types of instruments are discussed based on a classic division between legal, economic, and other instruments. Here the findings suggest that the theoretical dichotomy between legal and economic instruments does not fully reflect the real-world circumstances. For that reason, it could be wise to view these categories as being less distinct and divided from each other than they are sometimes described as. Even thou it is sometimes claimed that the trading system gives the best outcome if it is undisturbed, there are many examples in literature where combinations of governance instruments are advocated for. This chapter also introduces a model of sequential filters as a way of illustrating how the combination of instruments can be viewed from a system perspective and thus better understood.

Following this, the two instruments are discussed separately. After an account of the basic ideas and the regulations of the trading system it is discussed, from a governance instrument perspective, what effects the system is meant to have, how the outcome has been, and to what extent there may be room for adding additional instruments. From the findings in this chapter the conclusion is drawn that the system in theory is considered optimal by most authors. In practice thou, the steering effects has been absent due to generous allocations of allowances. Therefore, complementary instruments could be argued for.

After this the current legal standing concerning energy conservation cond-itions is examined. It is suggested that the scope for prescribing such conditions is quite large but limited by the requirement of economic reasonableness stated in the environmental code. Furthermore, it is argued that the application of the law should depend on the outcome of the analysis of the instrument combination. This due to the statuary goal of the environmental code, which is to promote sustainable development. An analysis of the conditions as governance instruments suggests that, despite potential problem with staleness, non-optimal cost-effectiveness, and resource demanding processes, they could be useful as complements to the trading system. This especially in a situation as the current, where the trading system fail to promote cost-effectiveness.

The closing chapter discusses the research question: Should energy conser-vation conditions be prescribed for activities already covered by the trading system? The arguments for not disturbing the trading system are weak since it in practice has been characterized by low prices and non-sufficient steering effects while the emission ceiling stays unaffected no matter what. A look at different criteria for reviewing governance instruments suggests that there is low risk for negative consequences in using a combination while the energy conservation conditions could have positive effects on alternative goals. In addition, conservation conditions are not haunted by the political conside¬rations resulting in a non-functioning trading system. A system perspective on the instruments shows that they both have multiple functions and can provide a variety of effects. Regardless of its impact on cost-effectiveness, the trading system works as a guarantee for achieving the overall set up goals because of the collective ceiling. With this safety measure already in place other more individually targeting instruments as the energy conservation conditions can be used to achieve alternative goals, make small more precise adjustments of the system, or introduce a perspective that looks further ahead. If provided in a well-thought-out manner, the various strengths of the instruments can complement each other.},
  author       = {Reutervik, Viktor},
  keyword      = {Miljörätt,EU-rätt,rättsvetenskap,EU ETS,Styrmedel,Energi},
  language     = {swe},
  note         = {Student Paper},
  title        = {Handlingskrav trots handelskrav? - Interaktion mellan energihushållningsvillkor i verksamhetstillstånd och EU:s system för handel med utsläppsrätter},
  year         = {2017},
}