Advanced

I gränslandet – när lagen inte räcker till - En undersökning av straffbara kränkningar och ofredanden på sociala medier

Lundgren, Emma LU (2017) JURM02 20172
Department of Law
Faculty of Law
Abstract
Due to the technical development, new ways of violating another person has been created. These ways do not comply with the procedures previously set out in Swedish penal law. This essay is an investigation of criminal offenses carried out on social media. The research is based on the criticism raised towards Swedish legislation. Focus lies on two provisions, molestation and sexual molestation according to chapter 4 section 7 and chapter 6 section 10 in the penal code. The aim is therefore to investigate whether or not these criminal offenses and the application of these are satisfactory in relation to relevant legislative motives and in a critical gender perspective. The fact that the offenses are applicable on violations of integrity... (More)
Due to the technical development, new ways of violating another person has been created. These ways do not comply with the procedures previously set out in Swedish penal law. This essay is an investigation of criminal offenses carried out on social media. The research is based on the criticism raised towards Swedish legislation. Focus lies on two provisions, molestation and sexual molestation according to chapter 4 section 7 and chapter 6 section 10 in the penal code. The aim is therefore to investigate whether or not these criminal offenses and the application of these are satisfactory in relation to relevant legislative motives and in a critical gender perspective. The fact that the offenses are applicable on violations of integrity makes them interesting compare. The difference of the meaning of the concept personal integrity and sexual integrity is therefore studied.

In order to enable a presentation of the application of law, rulings of lower courts are used as empirical material. In this part, the effort is to highlight if the court in relation to violations made on social media makes any special considerations. To accentuate these considerations, other rulings with the same classification of the crime are used with the difference that the molestation is made face to face.

In the final chapter, it is established that the concepts of personal integrity and sexual integrity relate to each other. This is mainly due to the fact that molestation often serve as a second-hand claim in cases of sexual molestation. However, it is stated that there are several uncertainties about the meaning of both concepts. It also appears that the sexual integrity is at a more qualified level and requires something further than is necessary for the personal integrity to be considered to be violated.

Finally, it appears that 96 per cent of cases linked to internet-related violations are withdrawn. One reason is said to be that the notification does not in fact contain a criminal offense. One interpretation is that the limit of what is accepted in terms of molestations probably has changed as the climate on social media has taken shape. That women to a greater extent than men suffer from this type of violations is a fact. The case law study found that there is no significant difference in the courts rulings, whether the act has been done on social media or face to face. In addition, the interaction that should exist between the rule of law and the security before the law cannot be considered to be in balance. Due to the number of notifications being withdrawn the security before the law should be strengthened, as those exposed to molestations at present cannot be considered to have the protection that society should maintain. This should be done without weakening the rule of law, which should also be reinforced, inter alia, by a more uniform application. This calls for clarification as to how different violations can occur and how they are punishable, especially when they are made at a distance through social media. (Less)
Abstract (Swedish)
Den tekniska utvecklingen innebär att det finns nya sätt att kränka en annan person som inte överensstämmer med de tillvägagångssätt som tidigare avsetts i svensk straffrätt. Förevarande uppsats är en undersökning av straffbara ofredanden på sociala medier. Utredningen görs med utgångspunkt i den kritik som riktats mot svensk lagstiftning. Två bestämmelser som kan aktualiseras när brott begås via sociala medier är ofredande enligt 4 kap. 7 § BrB samt sexuellt ofredande enligt 6 kap. 10 § BrB. Syftet är därför att med ett kritiskt genusrättsvetenskapligt perspektiv undersöka huruvida utformningen av straffbestämmelserna ofredande respektive sexuellt ofredande samt tillämpningen av dessa är tillfredställande i förhållande till relevanta... (More)
Den tekniska utvecklingen innebär att det finns nya sätt att kränka en annan person som inte överensstämmer med de tillvägagångssätt som tidigare avsetts i svensk straffrätt. Förevarande uppsats är en undersökning av straffbara ofredanden på sociala medier. Utredningen görs med utgångspunkt i den kritik som riktats mot svensk lagstiftning. Två bestämmelser som kan aktualiseras när brott begås via sociala medier är ofredande enligt 4 kap. 7 § BrB samt sexuellt ofredande enligt 6 kap. 10 § BrB. Syftet är därför att med ett kritiskt genusrättsvetenskapligt perspektiv undersöka huruvida utformningen av straffbestämmelserna ofredande respektive sexuellt ofredande samt tillämpningen av dessa är tillfredställande i förhållande till relevanta lagstiftningsmotiv. Att bestämmelserna innehåller samma begrepp samt har sin grund i integritetskränkningar gör dem intressanta att sätta i relation till varandra. Skillnaden i skyddsintresset personlig integritet samt sexuell integritet undersöks därför.

För att möjliggöra en presentation av rättstillämpningen på detta område används underrättsdomar som empiriskt material. I denna del är ansatsen att belysa om några särskilda överväganden görs av domstolen i förhållande till kränkningar som företas på sociala medier. För att lyfta fram dessa överväganden används domar i vilka samma rubriceringar aktualiserats men kränkningen där utgjorts av yttranden ansikte mot ansikte.

I uppsatsens avslutande kapitel fastslås att begreppen personlig integritet och sexuell integritet förhåller sig till varandra bland annat genom att ofredande ofta fungerar som ett andrahandsyrkande i mål som handlar om sexuellt ofredande. Emellertid kan sägas att det finns oklarheter kring innebörden av båda begreppen. Det framgår också att den sexuella integriteten ligger på en mer kvalificerad nivå och kräver något ytterligare än vad som krävs för att den personliga integriteten ska anses vara kränkt.

Slutligen visas att 96 procent av de ärenden som utgörs av internetrelaterade kränkningar läggs ner och en anledning sägs vara att anmälan inte innehållit en brottslig gärning. Detta tolkas som att gränsen för vad som accepteras i form av kränkningar förmodligen har förändrats i takt med att det klimat som råder på sociala medier har tagit form. Att kvinnor i större utsträckning än män drabbas av denna typ av kränkningar är ett faktum. Genom rättsfallsstudien konstateras att det inte kan visas någon utmärkande skillnad i domstolarnas bedömningar, oavsett om gärningen företagits på sociala medier eller ansikte mot ansikte. Därutöver kan det samspel som bör råda mellan rättssäkerhet och rättstrygghet inte anses vara i balans. Med anledning av hur många ärenden som läggs ner bör rättstryggheten förstärkas då de som utsätts för kränkningar i nuläget inte kan anses vara tillförsäkrade det skydd som samhället bör upprätthålla. Detta bör göras utan att försvaga rättssäkerheten som också den bör förstärkas bland annat genom en mer enhetlig tillämpning. Härigenom efterfrågas förtydliganden om hur olika kränkningar kan ske och på vilket sätt de är straffbara, särskilt när de företas på avstånd via sociala medier. (Less)
Please use this url to cite or link to this publication:
author
Lundgren, Emma LU
supervisor
organization
alternative title
An insufficient law? - A study of molestations on social media in Swedish criminal law
course
JURM02 20172
year
type
H3 - Professional qualifications (4 Years - )
subject
keywords
straffrätt, integritet, personlig integritet, sexuell integritet, sociala medier, ofredande, sexuellt ofredande
language
Swedish
id
8930846
date added to LUP
2018-02-01 13:57:52
date last changed
2021-02-22 07:50:19
@misc{8930846,
  abstract     = {Due to the technical development, new ways of violating another person has been created. These ways do not comply with the procedures previously set out in Swedish penal law. This essay is an investigation of criminal offenses carried out on social media. The research is based on the criticism raised towards Swedish legislation. Focus lies on two provisions, molestation and sexual molestation according to chapter 4 section 7 and chapter 6 section 10 in the penal code. The aim is therefore to investigate whether or not these criminal offenses and the application of these are satisfactory in relation to relevant legislative motives and in a critical gender perspective. The fact that the offenses are applicable on violations of integrity makes them interesting compare. The difference of the meaning of the concept personal integrity and sexual integrity is therefore studied.

In order to enable a presentation of the application of law, rulings of lower courts are used as empirical material. In this part, the effort is to highlight if the court in relation to violations made on social media makes any special considerations. To accentuate these considerations, other rulings with the same classification of the crime are used with the difference that the molestation is made face to face.

In the final chapter, it is established that the concepts of personal integrity and sexual integrity relate to each other. This is mainly due to the fact that molestation often serve as a second-hand claim in cases of sexual molestation. However, it is stated that there are several uncertainties about the meaning of both concepts. It also appears that the sexual integrity is at a more qualified level and requires something further than is necessary for the personal integrity to be considered to be violated.

Finally, it appears that 96 per cent of cases linked to internet-related violations are withdrawn. One reason is said to be that the notification does not in fact contain a criminal offense. One interpretation is that the limit of what is accepted in terms of molestations probably has changed as the climate on social media has taken shape. That women to a greater extent than men suffer from this type of violations is a fact. The case law study found that there is no significant difference in the courts rulings, whether the act has been done on social media or face to face. In addition, the interaction that should exist between the rule of law and the security before the law cannot be considered to be in balance. Due to the number of notifications being withdrawn the security before the law should be strengthened, as those exposed to molestations at present cannot be considered to have the protection that society should maintain. This should be done without weakening the rule of law, which should also be reinforced, inter alia, by a more uniform application. This calls for clarification as to how different violations can occur and how they are punishable, especially when they are made at a distance through social media.},
  author       = {Lundgren, Emma},
  keyword      = {straffrätt,integritet,personlig integritet,sexuell integritet,sociala medier,ofredande,sexuellt ofredande},
  language     = {swe},
  note         = {Student Paper},
  title        = {I gränslandet – när lagen inte räcker till - En undersökning av straffbara kränkningar och ofredanden på sociala medier},
  year         = {2017},
}