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Barnets bästa i Sverige och USA

Furukrantz, Gustav LU (2017) JURM02 20172
Department of Law
Faculty of Law
Abstract (Swedish)
FN:s konvention om barnets rättigheter(Barnkonventionen) föreskriver i sin tredje artikel att barnets bästa ska komma i det främsta rummet vid alla åtgärder som rör barn. Sverige har implementerat principen om barnets bästa i FB 6 kap 2a§ där det föreskrivs att barnets bästa ska vara avgörande för alla beslut om vårdnad, boende och umgänge. USA är det enda landet i världen som inte har ratificerat Barnkonventionen. I USA används principen om ”best interest of the child” för att ta tillvara barnets intressen i vårdnadsmål.

Syftet med uppsatsen är att jämföra innehållet i de två olika principerna samt jämföra domstolars tillämpning av principerna i Sverige och USA. Vidare undersöks det om det föreligger omständigheter som är av särskild... (More)
FN:s konvention om barnets rättigheter(Barnkonventionen) föreskriver i sin tredje artikel att barnets bästa ska komma i det främsta rummet vid alla åtgärder som rör barn. Sverige har implementerat principen om barnets bästa i FB 6 kap 2a§ där det föreskrivs att barnets bästa ska vara avgörande för alla beslut om vårdnad, boende och umgänge. USA är det enda landet i världen som inte har ratificerat Barnkonventionen. I USA används principen om ”best interest of the child” för att ta tillvara barnets intressen i vårdnadsmål.

Syftet med uppsatsen är att jämföra innehållet i de två olika principerna samt jämföra domstolars tillämpning av principerna i Sverige och USA. Vidare undersöks det om det föreligger omständigheter som är av särskild betydelse i vårdnadsmål i båda rättsordningarna samt om det går att dra lärdomar från eller hämta inspiration från principen om ”best interest of the child” och amerikanska domstolars tillämpning av den.

I svensk rätt har lagstiftaren listat ett antal faktorer i FB 6 kap 2a§ som domstol ska ta särskild hänsyn till i bedömningen av vad som är bäst för barnet. Det har dock inte ansetts lämpligt att definiera begreppet ”barnets bästa” i lagstiftning då detta skulle riskera att minska domstolars flexibilitet i det enskilda fallet. I amerikansk rätt händer det att det i lagstiftning finns en checklista av faktorer som domstol ska beakta när den avgör vad som ligger i ”best interest of the child”. Det är dock ovanligt att dessa faktorer viktas mot varandra i lagstiftningen.

Innehållet i de två principerna är lika varandra. I USA tar domstol hänsyn till föräldrarnas religionsfrihet i högre grad än i Sverige, där en förälders religion i princip aldrig har varit relevant i vårdnadsmål. I båda länderna är risken att barnet kan komma att fara illa en särskild betydelsefull omständighet, särskilt i USA där många delstater har en presumtion att en förälder som har begått övergrepp är olämplig som vårdnadshavare. Då det i svenska undersökningar har framhållits att domstolar tidigare har lagt för lite vikt vid det faktum att övergrepp har skett inom familjen kan det finnas vissa fördelar med att införa en liknande presumtion i svensk rättsordning. (Less)
Abstract
According to the third article in the UN Convention on the Rights of the Child, the best interest of the child shall be a primary consideration in all actions concerning children. Sweden has implemented the principle of the best interest of the child in Föräldrabalken 6 kap 2a§, which says that the best interest of the child shall be the decisive factor in cases regarding custody, living arrangements and visitation. USA is the only country in the world that hasn't ratified the UN Convention on the Rights of the Child. In USA, the principle of ”the best interest of the child” (note that while the name is the same, this principle is not the same as the one in article 3 of the UN Convention on the Rights of the Child) is used to ensure the... (More)
According to the third article in the UN Convention on the Rights of the Child, the best interest of the child shall be a primary consideration in all actions concerning children. Sweden has implemented the principle of the best interest of the child in Föräldrabalken 6 kap 2a§, which says that the best interest of the child shall be the decisive factor in cases regarding custody, living arrangements and visitation. USA is the only country in the world that hasn't ratified the UN Convention on the Rights of the Child. In USA, the principle of ”the best interest of the child” (note that while the name is the same, this principle is not the same as the one in article 3 of the UN Convention on the Rights of the Child) is used to ensure the welfare of the child in custody cases.

The purpose of this thesis is to compare the contents of the two different legal principles and compare how the courts apply them in Sweden and the USA. It is also examined if there are any circumstances that are of particular importance in both Sweden and the USA and if it is possible to learn anything from the american principle of ”best interest of the child” and the court's application of the principle.

A number of circumstances that are of particular importance for the courts when deciding what the best interest of the child is has been listed in FB 6 kap 2a§ in swedish law. It hasn't been deemed suitable to further define what ”the best interest of the child” means in swedish law due to the risk of the courts losing the flexibility needed to properly ensure the welfare of the child in the specific case. In some states in USA, there is a checklist in the state legislation with factors that the courts must take into account when deciding the best interest of the child. These factors are rarely weighted against each other in legislation.

The content of the two principles are similiar to each other. In the USA, courts take into account the parents rights to religious freedom to a much greater extent than in Sweden. In Sweden, a parent's right to religious freedom has practically never been relevant in custody cases. The risk that the child may suffer bodily or mental harm is a very important factor in both Sweden and the USA. This is especially true for the USA, where many states has a statutory presumption against awarding custody to a parent that has committed domestic violence. Since studies has shown that the swedish courts historically has put too little emphasis on the fact that a parent has commited domestic violence, there may be some advantages in introducing a similar presumption in Swedish law. (Less)
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author
Furukrantz, Gustav LU
supervisor
organization
alternative title
Best interest of the child in Sweden and USA
course
JURM02 20172
year
type
H3 - Professional qualifications (4 Years - )
subject
keywords
familjerätt
language
Swedish
id
8930873
date added to LUP
2018-01-22 13:33:08
date last changed
2018-01-22 13:33:08
@misc{8930873,
  abstract     = {According to the third article in the UN Convention on the Rights of the Child, the best interest of the child shall be a primary consideration in all actions concerning children. Sweden has implemented the principle of the best interest of the child in Föräldrabalken 6 kap 2a§, which says that the best interest of the child shall be the decisive factor in cases regarding custody, living arrangements and visitation. USA is the only country in the world that hasn't ratified the UN Convention on the Rights of the Child. In USA, the principle of ”the best interest of the child” (note that while the name is the same, this principle is not the same as the one in article 3 of the UN Convention on the Rights of the Child) is used to ensure the welfare of the child in custody cases.

The purpose of this thesis is to compare the contents of the two different legal principles and compare how the courts apply them in Sweden and the USA. It is also examined if there are any circumstances that are of particular importance in both Sweden and the USA and if it is possible to learn anything from the american principle of ”best interest of the child” and the court's application of the principle.

A number of circumstances that are of particular importance for the courts when deciding what the best interest of the child is has been listed in FB 6 kap 2a§ in swedish law. It hasn't been deemed suitable to further define what ”the best interest of the child” means in swedish law due to the risk of the courts losing the flexibility needed to properly ensure the welfare of the child in the specific case. In some states in USA, there is a checklist in the state legislation with factors that the courts must take into account when deciding the best interest of the child. These factors are rarely weighted against each other in legislation.

The content of the two principles are similiar to each other. In the USA, courts take into account the parents rights to religious freedom to a much greater extent than in Sweden. In Sweden, a parent's right to religious freedom has practically never been relevant in custody cases. The risk that the child may suffer bodily or mental harm is a very important factor in both Sweden and the USA. This is especially true for the USA, where many states has a statutory presumption against awarding custody to a parent that has committed domestic violence. Since studies has shown that the swedish courts historically has put too little emphasis on the fact that a parent has commited domestic violence, there may be some advantages in introducing a similar presumption in Swedish law.},
  author       = {Furukrantz, Gustav},
  keyword      = {familjerätt},
  language     = {swe},
  note         = {Student Paper},
  title        = {Barnets bästa i Sverige och USA},
  year         = {2017},
}