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Utflyttningsskatt på privatpersoners aktieinnehav: En analys av bilaterala och unilaterala åtgärder för att undanröja internationell dubbelbeskattning ur ett svenskt perspektiv

Hollender, Nora LU (2018) JURM02 20181
Department of Law
Faculty of Law
Abstract
The purpose of this thesis is to study and analyze possible ways of eliminating international double taxation when individually owned shares have been subject to emigration taxation. International double taxation occurs when two states impose tax on the same taxpayer in respect of the same income. Moreover, exit taxation can be defined as taxation when the liability to tax for an accrued, but not yet realized gain, on shares occurs at the time of emigration of the taxpayer. Another category of emigration taxes is when a state considers an individual liable to tax on a realized capital gain because he or she used to be a resident of the state. Thus, international double taxation occurs in cases of emigration taxation if both states (the old... (More)
The purpose of this thesis is to study and analyze possible ways of eliminating international double taxation when individually owned shares have been subject to emigration taxation. International double taxation occurs when two states impose tax on the same taxpayer in respect of the same income. Moreover, exit taxation can be defined as taxation when the liability to tax for an accrued, but not yet realized gain, on shares occurs at the time of emigration of the taxpayer. Another category of emigration taxes is when a state considers an individual liable to tax on a realized capital gain because he or she used to be a resident of the state. Thus, international double taxation occurs in cases of emigration taxation if both states (the old as well as the new state of residence) impose a tax on the same accrued value and on the same asset.

This study is made from a Swedish perspective. Therefore, the study concerns both the Swedish so called ten-year rule in chapter 3 paragraph 19 of the Swedish Income Tax Act, as well as a, since April 2018, withdrawn legislation proposal on a Swedish exit taxation. There is, however, reason to believe that the legislation proposal will be brought back at some point. Thusly, much focus is given to the analysis of a future Swedish exit taxation of individually owned shares in relation to international double taxation.

The thesis addresses unilateral, as well as, bilateral, means of eliminating the above mentioned double taxation. At a bilateral level an analysis of double taxation treaties is made. A conclusion which is drawn in relation to tax treaties is that the application in many cases is insufficient when trying to eliminate double taxation. Unilateral measures which are studied are; step-up in acquisition cost, reverse credit, and regular credit. In relation to these, the conclusion is that while many times being more successful in eliminating international double taxation than tax treaties, other problems may still remain. For example, the unilateral measures sometimes result in international double non-taxation.

Lastly, it is not possible to draw a conclusion on how taxation rights should be allocated between states when the taxpayer has changed state of residence. In the author’s point of view, traditional principles of international taxation are insufficient when allocating taxing rights because of exit taxes. Therefore, any future discussion needs to be focused in new ways in which to allocate taxing rights so as to not result in international double (non-) taxation. (Less)
Abstract (Swedish)
I denna examensuppsats utreds möjliga åtgärder för att undanröja internationell dubbelbeskattning till följd av utflyttningsbeskattning av fysiska personers aktieinnehav. Internationell dubbelbeskattning innebär att samma person beskattas för samma inkomst i två olika stater. Utflyttningsskatt innebär att en stat beskattar en uppkommen värdeökning antingen direkt vid hemvistbytet (exitbeskattning), alternativt inför en särskild reglering innebärandes en s.k. utsträckt beskattningsrätt vid en framtida realisation av aktierna trots att personen inte längre är bosatt i staten. Internationell dubbelbeskattning kan i dessa fall uppstå om både utflyttningsstaten och den nya hemviststaten (inflyttningsstaten) beskattar samma värdeökning.

... (More)
I denna examensuppsats utreds möjliga åtgärder för att undanröja internationell dubbelbeskattning till följd av utflyttningsbeskattning av fysiska personers aktieinnehav. Internationell dubbelbeskattning innebär att samma person beskattas för samma inkomst i två olika stater. Utflyttningsskatt innebär att en stat beskattar en uppkommen värdeökning antingen direkt vid hemvistbytet (exitbeskattning), alternativt inför en särskild reglering innebärandes en s.k. utsträckt beskattningsrätt vid en framtida realisation av aktierna trots att personen inte längre är bosatt i staten. Internationell dubbelbeskattning kan i dessa fall uppstå om både utflyttningsstaten och den nya hemviststaten (inflyttningsstaten) beskattar samma värdeökning.

Utredningen är gjord ur ett svenskt perspektiv vilket medför att tioårsregeln i 3 kap. 19 § IL, samt det lagförslag om en svensk exitbeskattning vilket drogs tillbaka av regeringen i april år 2018, har analyserats. Mot bakgrund av att exitbeskattning har berörts även i tidigare propositioner är det dock sannolikt att ett liknande förslag återkommer. Med anledning av lagförslagets aktualitet ges stort utrymme i uppsatsen till en analys av en eventuell svensk exitbeskattning av aktier.

I uppsatsen utreds såväl unilaterala, som bilaterala sätt att undanröja internationell dubbelbeskattning. På bilateral nivå diskuteras möjligheten att tillämpa dubbelbeskattningsavtal för att undanröja dubbelbeskattning. I förhållande till skatteavtal dras dock slutsatsen att dessa i många fall är otillräckliga för att undanröja den aktuella dubbelbeskattningen. De unilaterala åtgärderna för att undanröja dubbelbeskattning som utreds är step-up i anskaffningsvärde, omvänd avräkning, samt avräkning i inflyttningsstaten. Avseende de unilaterala åtgärderna dras slutsatsen att de oftare än tillämpliga skatteavtal undanröjer dubbelbeskattningen, men att de samtidigt medför andra svårigheter och kan ibland leda till internationell dubbel icke-beskattning.

Avslutningsvis konstateras att det inte finns något klart svar på frågan om hur beskattningsrätten mellan stater bör fördelas när skattesubjektet bytt hemvist. Det är dock min uppfattning att de traditionella skatterättsliga principerna för fördelningen av beskattningsrätten, såsom hemviststats-, källstats-, och territorialitetsprincipen, inte passar in på utflyttningsbeskattningen. Istället behöver en framtida diskussion inriktas på nya sätt att fördela beskattningsrätten staterna emellan. Dessutom krävs att staterna är överens för att fördelningen inte ska riskera att resultera i internationell dubbel (icke-) beskattning. (Less)
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author
Hollender, Nora LU
supervisor
organization
alternative title
Exit-taxation of individually owned shares: An analysis of bilateral and unilateral means of eliminating international double taxation from a Swedish perspective
course
JURM02 20181
year
type
H3 - Professional qualifications (4 Years - )
subject
keywords
Exit tax, utflyttningsskatt, utflyttningsbeskattning, tioårsregeln, internationell skatterätt, emigration tax, exitbeskattning, beskattning av aktier, individbeskattning, internationell individbeskattning, individual taxation, international tax, exit-tax, skatteavtal, skatterätt, skatteavtalsrätt
language
Swedish
id
8940782
date added to LUP
2018-06-08 13:21:01
date last changed
2018-06-08 13:21:01
@misc{8940782,
  abstract     = {The purpose of this thesis is to study and analyze possible ways of eliminating international double taxation when individually owned shares have been subject to emigration taxation. International double taxation occurs when two states impose tax on the same taxpayer in respect of the same income. Moreover, exit taxation can be defined as taxation when the liability to tax for an accrued, but not yet realized gain, on shares occurs at the time of emigration of the taxpayer. Another category of emigration taxes is when a state considers an individual liable to tax on a realized capital gain because he or she used to be a resident of the state. Thus, international double taxation occurs in cases of emigration taxation if both states (the old as well as the new state of residence) impose a tax on the same accrued value and on the same asset. 

This study is made from a Swedish perspective. Therefore, the study concerns both the Swedish so called ten-year rule in chapter 3 paragraph 19 of the Swedish Income Tax Act, as well as a, since April 2018, withdrawn legislation proposal on a Swedish exit taxation. There is, however, reason to believe that the legislation proposal will be brought back at some point. Thusly, much focus is given to the analysis of a future Swedish exit taxation of individually owned shares in relation to international double taxation. 

The thesis addresses unilateral, as well as, bilateral, means of eliminating the above mentioned double taxation. At a bilateral level an analysis of double taxation treaties is made. A conclusion which is drawn in relation to tax treaties is that the application in many cases is insufficient when trying to eliminate double taxation. Unilateral measures which are studied are; step-up in acquisition cost, reverse credit, and regular credit. In relation to these, the conclusion is that while many times being more successful in eliminating international double taxation than tax treaties, other problems may still remain. For example, the unilateral measures sometimes result in international double non-taxation. 

Lastly, it is not possible to draw a conclusion on how taxation rights should be allocated between states when the taxpayer has changed state of residence. In the author’s point of view, traditional principles of international taxation are insufficient when allocating taxing rights because of exit taxes. Therefore, any future discussion needs to be focused in new ways in which to allocate taxing rights so as to not result in international double (non-) taxation.},
  author       = {Hollender, Nora},
  keyword      = {Exit tax,utflyttningsskatt,utflyttningsbeskattning,tioårsregeln,internationell skatterätt,emigration tax,exitbeskattning,beskattning av aktier,individbeskattning,internationell individbeskattning,individual taxation,international tax,exit-tax,skatteavtal,skatterätt,skatteavtalsrätt},
  language     = {swe},
  note         = {Student Paper},
  title        = {Utflyttningsskatt på privatpersoners aktieinnehav: En analys av bilaterala och unilaterala åtgärder för att undanröja internationell dubbelbeskattning ur ett svenskt perspektiv},
  year         = {2018},
}