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Tills döden skiljer oss åt - En komparativ studie av den efterlevande makens arvsrättsliga skydd i svensk och finsk rätt

Sumelius, Emmie LU (2018) LAGF03 20181
Department of Law
Faculty of Law
Abstract (Swedish)
Makes arvsrätt infördes i Sverige år 1988 i samband med en större reform på både äktenskapsrättens och arvsrättens område. Den tidigare arvsrättens utformning ansågs vara grundad på en föråldrad syn på både familjen och samhället, och det var dags för en förnyelse. Den efterlevande makens skydd stärktes på de gemensamma bröstarvingarnas bekostnad, men särkullbarnen fick dock behålla sin förtur till arv. Ett av de mest centrala motiven till lagändringen var att den ofta ålderstigna efterlevande maken var i större behov av arvet än bröstarvingarna, som i allmänhet var självförsörjande och redan i medelåldern. Den dåvarande arvsordningen hade således tappat i social och ekonomisk betydelse för bröstarvingarna.

Tio år senare undersöktes hur... (More)
Makes arvsrätt infördes i Sverige år 1988 i samband med en större reform på både äktenskapsrättens och arvsrättens område. Den tidigare arvsrättens utformning ansågs vara grundad på en föråldrad syn på både familjen och samhället, och det var dags för en förnyelse. Den efterlevande makens skydd stärktes på de gemensamma bröstarvingarnas bekostnad, men särkullbarnen fick dock behålla sin förtur till arv. Ett av de mest centrala motiven till lagändringen var att den ofta ålderstigna efterlevande maken var i större behov av arvet än bröstarvingarna, som i allmänhet var självförsörjande och redan i medelåldern. Den dåvarande arvsordningen hade således tappat i social och ekonomisk betydelse för bröstarvingarna.

Tio år senare undersöktes hur väl lagändringen fått genomslag genom SOU 1998:110. Det utreddes också huruvida den praktiska tillämpningen gett upphov till svårigheter eller inte. De sakkunniga kom med några förslag till mindre ändringar, men i sin helhet hade makes arvsrätt fungerat väl.

I Finland har den efterlevande maken endast arvsrätt ifall det inte finns bröstarvingar eller testamentstagare. Huvudregeln är att den efterlevande i stället har rätt att förbli i den gemensamma bostaden, oberoende av om något annat följer av arvsordningen eller om annat förordnats genom testamente. Denna nyttjanderätt omfattar bostad och bohag i den gemensamma bostaden och rätten är absolut, om inte den efterlevande i sin egen förmögenhet äger en bostad som är lämplig som hem. I Finland har det inte tagits några initiativ till att ändra på den nuvarande ärvdabalken.

I denna uppsats har jag valt att studera både den finska och svenska modellen, för att finna fördelar och nackdelar med bägge av dem. Uppsatsen har haft som syfte att utreda huruvida de problem som uppstår i den svenska modellen kunde lösas m.h.a. den finska modellens utformning.

Undersökningen har utmynnat i slutsatsen att den finska modellen i viss mån kunde erbjuda lösningar på den problematik man stött på i Sverige. Det som dock hindrar en sammansmältning av de två modellerna är att värderingarna och intresseavvägningarna bakom den svenska respektive den finska modellen är av olika slag. (Less)
Abstract
In 1988, the surviving spouse received the right to inherit before the direct heirs in Sweden. The amendment was part of a larger reformation in the area of inheritance and matrimonial law. The previous formulation of the law was considered to be based on outdated views on society and family, and the time was right for a transformation. The financial security of the spouse was fortified at the expense of the direct heirs’, but the children of the deceased person in a previous marriage (or relationship) kept their right to inherit immediately after the death of their parent. One of the key motives for adapting the new amendment was that the surviving spouse, who usually had reached a high age, was more in need of financial support than the... (More)
In 1988, the surviving spouse received the right to inherit before the direct heirs in Sweden. The amendment was part of a larger reformation in the area of inheritance and matrimonial law. The previous formulation of the law was considered to be based on outdated views on society and family, and the time was right for a transformation. The financial security of the spouse was fortified at the expense of the direct heirs’, but the children of the deceased person in a previous marriage (or relationship) kept their right to inherit immediately after the death of their parent. One of the key motives for adapting the new amendment was that the surviving spouse, who usually had reached a high age, was more in need of financial support than the direct heirs were. The direct heirs were usually middle aged and in a financially stable part of their lives. Therefore, the previous system had lost both social and financial importance for the direct heirs.

Ten years later the amendment was investigated through a government inquiry, SOU 1998:110. The inquiry focused on how good an impact the amendment had achieved, and whether any difficulties had arisen in the application on not. The legal advisers came with a few suggestions for minor changes, but as a whole the amendment had filled its purpose.

In Finland, the surviving spouse will inherit only if there are no direct heirs or legatees. Instead, the surviving spouse has the right to remain in the joint residence, regardless of the direct heirs, other heirs or any appointments in a will. This right of use concerns the joint residence of the spouses and the household goods, unless the surviving spouse has got a residence fit as a home of their own. There have been no initiatives for changing the current system in Finland.

In this thesis I have chosen to study the Swedish and the Finnish model, in order to find advantages and disadvantages of them both. The objective of the thesis has been to examine whether the Finnish model can provide alternative solutions for the difficulties that have arisen in Sweden.

The thesis shows that the Finnish model may provide some solutions to the difficulties that arise in the application of the spouse’s right to inherit in Sweden. However, the societal values and how each country has decided to balance the different interests between the concerned parties are somewhat different, and therefore prevent a joint solution. (Less)
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author
Sumelius, Emmie LU
supervisor
organization
course
LAGF03 20181
year
type
M2 - Bachelor Degree
subject
keywords
Familjerätt, family law, komparativ rätt, comparative law, arvsrätt, successionsrätt
language
Swedish
id
8941040
date added to LUP
2018-07-04 18:16:30
date last changed
2018-07-04 18:16:30
@misc{8941040,
  abstract     = {In 1988, the surviving spouse received the right to inherit before the direct heirs in Sweden. The amendment was part of a larger reformation in the area of inheritance and matrimonial law. The previous formulation of the law was considered to be based on outdated views on society and family, and the time was right for a transformation. The financial security of the spouse was fortified at the expense of the direct heirs’, but the children of the deceased person in a previous marriage (or relationship) kept their right to inherit immediately after the death of their parent. One of the key motives for adapting the new amendment was that the surviving spouse, who usually had reached a high age, was more in need of financial support than the direct heirs were. The direct heirs were usually middle aged and in a financially stable part of their lives. Therefore, the previous system had lost both social and financial importance for the direct heirs. 

Ten years later the amendment was investigated through a government inquiry, SOU 1998:110. The inquiry focused on how good an impact the amendment had achieved, and whether any difficulties had arisen in the application on not. The legal advisers came with a few suggestions for minor changes, but as a whole the amendment had filled its purpose. 

In Finland, the surviving spouse will inherit only if there are no direct heirs or legatees. Instead, the surviving spouse has the right to remain in the joint residence, regardless of the direct heirs, other heirs or any appointments in a will. This right of use concerns the joint residence of the spouses and the household goods, unless the surviving spouse has got a residence fit as a home of their own. There have been no initiatives for changing the current system in Finland. 

In this thesis I have chosen to study the Swedish and the Finnish model, in order to find advantages and disadvantages of them both. The objective of the thesis has been to examine whether the Finnish model can provide alternative solutions for the difficulties that have arisen in Sweden.

The thesis shows that the Finnish model may provide some solutions to the difficulties that arise in the application of the spouse’s right to inherit in Sweden. However, the societal values and how each country has decided to balance the different interests between the concerned parties are somewhat different, and therefore prevent a joint solution.},
  author       = {Sumelius, Emmie},
  keyword      = {Familjerätt,family law,komparativ rätt,comparative law,arvsrätt,successionsrätt},
  language     = {swe},
  note         = {Student Paper},
  title        = {Tills döden skiljer oss åt - En komparativ studie av den efterlevande makens arvsrättsliga skydd i svensk och finsk rätt},
  year         = {2018},
}