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Stridsåtgärder mot kollektivavtalsbundna arbetsgivare – en studie om möjliga begränsningar av stridsrätten med utgångspunkt i konflikten i Göteborgs hamn

Nygren, Thea LU (2018) JURM02 20181
Department of Law
Faculty of Law
Abstract (Swedish)
På den svenska arbetsmarknaden råder den s.k. ”svenska modellen”. Modellen kännetecknas av en hög organisationsgrad bland arbetstagare och arbetsgivare samt att kollektivavtal används för att reglera anställningsförhållanden. Arbetsmarknadens parter är självständiga och ges stor möjlighet att lösa inbördes konflikter utan statlig kontroll och med minimal arbetsrättslig lagstiftning. Rätten att vidta stridsåtgärder är en central del av den svenska modellen och är dessutom grundlagsskyddad. För arbetsmarknadens parter utgör stridsvapnet ett viktigt påtryckningsmedel för att få gehör för sina krav beträffande anställningsförhållandet mellan arbetstagare och arbetsgivare. På senare tid har det dock av både arbetsmarknadens parter och politiker... (More)
På den svenska arbetsmarknaden råder den s.k. ”svenska modellen”. Modellen kännetecknas av en hög organisationsgrad bland arbetstagare och arbetsgivare samt att kollektivavtal används för att reglera anställningsförhållanden. Arbetsmarknadens parter är självständiga och ges stor möjlighet att lösa inbördes konflikter utan statlig kontroll och med minimal arbetsrättslig lagstiftning. Rätten att vidta stridsåtgärder är en central del av den svenska modellen och är dessutom grundlagsskyddad. För arbetsmarknadens parter utgör stridsvapnet ett viktigt påtryckningsmedel för att få gehör för sina krav beträffande anställningsförhållandet mellan arbetstagare och arbetsgivare. På senare tid har det dock av både arbetsmarknadens parter och politiker förts diskussioner om stridsrätten bör begränsas. Debatten har sin utgångspunkt i den s.k. hamnkonflikten i Göteborg som har pågått sedan år 2016. Konflikten grundar sig i att en kollektivavtalsbunden arbetsgivare blivit utsatt för stridsåtgärder av ett annat fackförbund än den som arbetsgivaren har tecknat kollektivavtal med. Med anledning av konflikten tillsatte regeringen sommaren 2017 en utredning för att undersöka om stridsrätten bör begränsas.

I denna uppsats för jag argument både för och emot en begränsning av stridsrätten i situationer när en kollektivavtalsbunden arbetsgivare utsätts för stridsåtgärder av en annan organisation än den som arbetsgivaren har tecknat kollektivavtal med. Jag undersöker även två möjliga lösningsmodeller – inrättandet av en särskild nämnd och införandet av en proportionalitetsprincip – som kan vara aktuella för att lösa eller undvika liknande konflikter i framtiden. I undersökningen diskuterar jag hur lösningsmodellerna kan införas i den svenska rättsordningen och vilka styrkor och svagheter de har med hänsyn till den svenska modellen.

Det kan konstateras att det inte är ett realistiskt alternativ att införa de två lösningsmodellerna genom kollektivavtal. Istället krävs lagändringar. Båda lösningsmodellerna skulle innebära främmande inslag i den svenska modellen. Införandet av en särskild nämnd skulle leda till en större grad av statlig inblandning och kontroll medan införandet av en proportionalitetsprincip skulle innebära att arbetsmarknadsparternas makt förflyttas till Arbetsdomstolen. Införandet av en proportionalitetsprincip skulle dock enligt min mening vara en mindre ingripande åtgärd med hänsyn till den svenska modellen än införandet av en nämnd. Därför anser jag att införandet av en proportionalitetsprincip är en mer tillfredsställande lösning om det fordras att göra ändringar i stridsrätten. (Less)
Abstract
The Swedish Labor Market Model (also known as the "Swedish model") is characterized by a high degree of organization among employees and employers, and collective agreements are used to regulate employment relationships. The labor market parties are independent and are to a large extent given rights to resolve inter-conflicts without government intervention and with minimum labor law regulations related thereto. The right to take industrial action is a central part of the Swedish model and is protected in the Instrument of government. For the labor market partners, industrial action constitutes an important means to put pressure on the counterpart to meet their demands regarding the employment relationship between workers and employers.... (More)
The Swedish Labor Market Model (also known as the "Swedish model") is characterized by a high degree of organization among employees and employers, and collective agreements are used to regulate employment relationships. The labor market parties are independent and are to a large extent given rights to resolve inter-conflicts without government intervention and with minimum labor law regulations related thereto. The right to take industrial action is a central part of the Swedish model and is protected in the Instrument of government. For the labor market partners, industrial action constitutes an important means to put pressure on the counterpart to meet their demands regarding the employment relationship between workers and employers. However, in recent times, both sides of labor market parties and politicians have been discussing if the right to industrial action should be subject to restrictions or limitations. This discussion was partly a consequence of the so-called Conflict in Gothenburg’s Harbor, which has been ongoing since 2016. The conflict is based on the fact that an employer, who is bound by a collective agreement, has been subjected to industrial action by another union than the union with which the employer has signed the collective agreement. As a result of the conflict, in the summer of 2017, the Swedish government decided to initiate an governmental investigation on whether the right to industrial action should be subject to restrictions or limitations.

In this thesis, I put forward arguments both for and against a limitation of the right to industrial action in situations when an employer, who is bound by a collective agreement, is subjected to industrial action by another union than the union with which the employer has signed the collective agreement. I also examine two possible solutions which may be relevant for resolving or avoiding similar conflicts in the future, namely the establishment of a special committee and the introduction of a principle of proportionality. I discuss how the solutions can be implemented in the Swedish legal system and their strengths and weaknesses with regard to the Swedish model.

It is clear that it is not a realistic alternative to introduce the two solutions through collective agreements. Instead, changes to the labor legislation are required. Both solutions would mean the introduction of foreign features in the Swedish model. The introduction of a special committee would lead to a substantial increase in governmental involvement and control while the introduction of a principle of proportionality would transfer the autonomy and power of the labor market parties to the Labor Court. However, with regard to the Swedish model, I believe that the introduction of a principle of proportionality would be a less invasive measure than the introduction of a special committee. Therefore, I believe that the introduction of a principle of proportionality would be a more satisfactory solution if it is required to make changes to the existing legislation on the right to take industrial action. (Less)
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author
Nygren, Thea LU
supervisor
organization
alternative title
Industrial actions against employers bound by collective agreements - A study of possible limitations of the right to industrial actions in connection to the conflict in Gothenburg Harbor
course
JURM02 20181
year
type
H3 - Professional qualifications (4 Years - )
subject
keywords
Arbetsrätt
language
Swedish
id
8941195
date added to LUP
2018-06-10 15:29:01
date last changed
2018-06-10 15:29:01
@misc{8941195,
  abstract     = {The Swedish Labor Market Model (also known as the "Swedish model") is characterized by a high degree of organization among employees and employers, and collective agreements are used to regulate employment relationships. The labor market parties are independent and are to a large extent given rights to resolve inter-conflicts without government intervention and with minimum labor law regulations related thereto. The right to take industrial action is a central part of the Swedish model and is protected in the Instrument of government. For the labor market partners, industrial action constitutes an important means to put pressure on the counterpart to meet their demands regarding the employment relationship between workers and employers. However, in recent times, both sides of labor market parties and politicians have been discussing if the right to industrial action should be subject to restrictions or limitations. This discussion was partly a consequence of the so-called Conflict in Gothenburg’s Harbor, which has been ongoing since 2016. The conflict is based on the fact that an employer, who is bound by a collective agreement, has been subjected to industrial action by another union than the union with which the employer has signed the collective agreement. As a result of the conflict, in the summer of 2017, the Swedish government decided to initiate an governmental investigation on whether the right to industrial action should be subject to restrictions or limitations.

In this thesis, I put forward arguments both for and against a limitation of the right to industrial action in situations when an employer, who is bound by a collective agreement, is subjected to industrial action by another union than the union with which the employer has signed the collective agreement. I also examine two possible solutions which may be relevant for resolving or avoiding similar conflicts in the future, namely the establishment of a special committee and the introduction of a principle of proportionality. I discuss how the solutions can be implemented in the Swedish legal system and their strengths and weaknesses with regard to the Swedish model.

It is clear that it is not a realistic alternative to introduce the two solutions through collective agreements. Instead, changes to the labor legislation are required. Both solutions would mean the introduction of foreign features in the Swedish model. The introduction of a special committee would lead to a substantial increase in governmental involvement and control while the introduction of a principle of proportionality would transfer the autonomy and power of the labor market parties to the Labor Court. However, with regard to the Swedish model, I believe that the introduction of a principle of proportionality would be a less invasive measure than the introduction of a special committee. Therefore, I believe that the introduction of a principle of proportionality would be a more satisfactory solution if it is required to make changes to the existing legislation on the right to take industrial action.},
  author       = {Nygren, Thea},
  keyword      = {Arbetsrätt},
  language     = {swe},
  note         = {Student Paper},
  title        = {Stridsåtgärder mot kollektivavtalsbundna arbetsgivare – en studie om möjliga begränsningar av stridsrätten med utgångspunkt i konflikten i Göteborgs hamn},
  year         = {2018},
}