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Den avideologiserade straffrätten - En straffrättsideologisk analys av 2000-talets straffskärpningar

Jönsson, Kristian LU (2018) JURM02 20181
Department of Law
Faculty of Law
Abstract (Swedish)
Syftet med detta examensarbete är att undersöka de straffskärpningar som har genomförts på 2000-talet ur ett straffrättsideologiskt perspektiv. Undersökningen utgår från frågeställningen om straffskärpningarna ger uttryck för ett straffrättsideologiskt trendbrott, och om det går att tala om en avideologisering av straffrätten. Historiskt sett har svensk straffrätt präglats av både absoluta och relativa straffrättsideologier, under 1900-talet var dock den s.k. behandlingsideologin förhärskande. Mot slutet av århundradet uppstod den nyklassicistiska straffrättsskolan som en kritik mot behandlingsideologin. Skolbildningen förde in principerna om proportionalitet och ekvivalens i påföljdsbestämningen, vilket manifesterades i den senaste stora... (More)
Syftet med detta examensarbete är att undersöka de straffskärpningar som har genomförts på 2000-talet ur ett straffrättsideologiskt perspektiv. Undersökningen utgår från frågeställningen om straffskärpningarna ger uttryck för ett straffrättsideologiskt trendbrott, och om det går att tala om en avideologisering av straffrätten. Historiskt sett har svensk straffrätt präglats av både absoluta och relativa straffrättsideologier, under 1900-talet var dock den s.k. behandlingsideologin förhärskande. Mot slutet av århundradet uppstod den nyklassicistiska straffrättsskolan som en kritik mot behandlingsideologin. Skolbildningen förde in principerna om proportionalitet och ekvivalens i påföljdsbestämningen, vilket manifesterades i den senaste stora översynen av straffsystemet i 1989 års påföljdsreform.

I undersökningen redogörs för totalt 60 straffskärpningar, varav majoriteten har genomförts sedan 2009. Generellt sett har straffskärpningar skett inom de flesta brottskategorierna, men det föreligger en kraftig övervikt vad gäller brotten mot person och förmögenhetsbrotten. Utmärkande för perioden 2009– 2018 är straffskärpningarna för mord, allvarliga våldsbrott, vapenbrott och brotten mot frihet och frid varav samtliga har genomförts under denna period. Ur ett straffrättsideologiskt perspektiv kan straffskärpningarna sägas ge uttryck för ett slags slutgiltigt utmönstrande av preventionstanken på det viset att prevention fullt ut har ersatts med proportionalitet. Straffskärpningarna ger vidare uttryck för en absolut straffrättsideologi i den meningen att straffet inte längre motiveras utifrån något praktiskt socialt syfte, det bakomliggande syftet tycks inte vara mer än att tillfredsställa det allmänna rättsmedvetandets påstådda krav på skärpta straff. Till ytan är motiveringarna klädda i en nyklassicistisk språkdräkt, men en analys visar att begreppen är relativt tomma till sitt innehåll. Den begreppsapparat som används för att motivera straffskärpningarna kan svårligen spåras till någon egentlig ideologisk grund, om 1900-talet kunde beskrivas som ett i hög grad ideologiskt århundrade har 2000-talet hittills präglats av en avideologiserad straffrätt. (Less)
Abstract
The purpose of this paper is to examine the 21st century reforms that have been aimed at increasing the criminal penalties in Swedish criminal law from a penal theoretical perspective. The study examines two main issues: are the reforms a manifestation of a changed penal theory, and could the phenomena furthermore be explained as a ‘de-ideologized’ criminal law? Historically, the Swedish criminal law has been influenced by both relative and absolute penal theories. During the 20th century Swedish criminal law was governed by modern penal theories of individual prevention. At the end of the century, however, the so called neoclassical movement gained influence. The neoclassicists advocated the principles of proportionality and equivalency... (More)
The purpose of this paper is to examine the 21st century reforms that have been aimed at increasing the criminal penalties in Swedish criminal law from a penal theoretical perspective. The study examines two main issues: are the reforms a manifestation of a changed penal theory, and could the phenomena furthermore be explained as a ‘de-ideologized’ criminal law? Historically, the Swedish criminal law has been influenced by both relative and absolute penal theories. During the 20th century Swedish criminal law was governed by modern penal theories of individual prevention. At the end of the century, however, the so called neoclassical movement gained influence. The neoclassicists advocated the principles of proportionality and equivalency which subsequently were incorporated in legislation through the latest major reform act of the criminal law penal system in 1989.

This study examines 60 penal reforms, most of them regarding crimes against person and property. The majority of the reforms have been implemented between 2009–2018, particularly regarding crimes concerning murder, crimes of violence, crimes relating to the unlawful possessing of weapons and crimes against liberty and peace. From a penal theoretical perspective, the reforms are characterized by a final abolishment of the notion of prevention, in the sense that prevention has been replaced in full by the notion of proportionality. Furthermore, the reforms manifest an absolute penal theory in the meaning that the penalty as such does not have any practical social purpose, the only purpose seems to be to satisfy the public opinion’s alleged demands for a firmer view on criminal penalties. The reforms are motivated by the same ideas as were expressed by the neoclassicist movement, but seem practically devoid of meaning when analyzed. The ideas used to motivate the reforms can hardly be traced to any theoretical foundation, if the 20th century could be described as an ideologized century, the penal reforms of the 21st century has so far rather been de-ideologized. (Less)
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author
Jönsson, Kristian LU
supervisor
organization
alternative title
The de-ideologized criminal law - A penal theoretical analysis of 21st century penal reforms
course
JURM02 20181
year
type
H3 - Professional qualifications (4 Years - )
subject
keywords
Straffrätt, Straffrättsideologi
language
Swedish
id
8941493
date added to LUP
2018-06-08 13:22:25
date last changed
2018-06-08 13:22:25
@misc{8941493,
  abstract     = {The purpose of this paper is to examine the 21st century reforms that have been aimed at increasing the criminal penalties in Swedish criminal law from a penal theoretical perspective. The study examines two main issues: are the reforms a manifestation of a changed penal theory, and could the phenomena furthermore be explained as a ‘de-ideologized’ criminal law? Historically, the Swedish criminal law has been influenced by both relative and absolute penal theories. During the 20th century Swedish criminal law was governed by modern penal theories of individual prevention. At the end of the century, however, the so called neoclassical movement gained influence. The neoclassicists advocated the principles of proportionality and equivalency which subsequently were incorporated in legislation through the latest major reform act of the criminal law penal system in 1989.

This study examines 60 penal reforms, most of them regarding crimes against person and property. The majority of the reforms have been implemented between 2009–2018, particularly regarding crimes concerning murder, crimes of violence, crimes relating to the unlawful possessing of weapons and crimes against liberty and peace. From a penal theoretical perspective, the reforms are characterized by a final abolishment of the notion of prevention, in the sense that prevention has been replaced in full by the notion of proportionality. Furthermore, the reforms manifest an absolute penal theory in the meaning that the penalty as such does not have any practical social purpose, the only purpose seems to be to satisfy the public opinion’s alleged demands for a firmer view on criminal penalties. The reforms are motivated by the same ideas as were expressed by the neoclassicist movement, but seem practically devoid of meaning when analyzed. The ideas used to motivate the reforms can hardly be traced to any theoretical foundation, if the 20th century could be described as an ideologized century, the penal reforms of the 21st century has so far rather been de-ideologized.},
  author       = {Jönsson, Kristian},
  keyword      = {Straffrätt,Straffrättsideologi},
  language     = {swe},
  note         = {Student Paper},
  title        = {Den avideologiserade straffrätten - En straffrättsideologisk analys av 2000-talets straffskärpningar},
  year         = {2018},
}