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Vad är problemet? - Om hur den nätverksbaserade brottsligheten framkallar nya svårigheter för den individualistiska straffrätten

Embäck, Theodor LU (2018) JURM02 20181
Faculty of Law
Department of Law
Abstract (Swedish)
Detta arbete handlar om hur en typ av brottslighet som beskrivs i kriminologin, nätverksbaserad brottslighet, är problematisk för straffrättens individualistiska utgångspunkter. Uppsatsen presenterar vissa översiktliga idéer som eventuellt skulle kunna bidra till en lösning av svårigheterna. Syftet är dock inte att tillhandahålla en lösning, utan att ge en fördjupad problematisering. Finns ett problem och hur kan det i så fall beskrivas? Frågan kan besvaras på flera sätt. Uppsatsens slutsats är att straffrätten konstruerats för att i första hand skydda den enskilde från statliga över-grepp, samtidigt som den är ett led i samhällets bekämpande av brottsligheten. Detta ger upphov till den klassiska motsättningen mellan å ena sidan... (More)
Detta arbete handlar om hur en typ av brottslighet som beskrivs i kriminologin, nätverksbaserad brottslighet, är problematisk för straffrättens individualistiska utgångspunkter. Uppsatsen presenterar vissa översiktliga idéer som eventuellt skulle kunna bidra till en lösning av svårigheterna. Syftet är dock inte att tillhandahålla en lösning, utan att ge en fördjupad problematisering. Finns ett problem och hur kan det i så fall beskrivas? Frågan kan besvaras på flera sätt. Uppsatsens slutsats är att straffrätten konstruerats för att i första hand skydda den enskilde från statliga över-grepp, samtidigt som den är ett led i samhällets bekämpande av brottsligheten. Detta ger upphov till den klassiska motsättningen mellan å ena sidan rättssäkerheten och å andra sidan effektiviteten i brottsbekämpningen. Straffrättens uppbyggnad kring en individuell handling och en individuell skuld hänger samman med dess syfte att skydda den enskilde och dennes frihet. Därför blir det problematiskt om effektiviteten i brottsbekämpningen blir beroende av att straffsanktioner riktas mot beteenden vars klandervärdhet bara kan förstås utifrån en större, kollektiv, kontext. Den nätverksbaserade brottsligheten utgör något som straffrätten inte utformats för att hantera. Straffrätten bygger på idéer från en tid då storskaligt koordinerat handlande av den typ som nät¬verksbrottsligheten utgörs av inte var en praktisk möjlighet. Individuell subjektiv täckning är en central princip när straffrättsliga ansvarsfrågor ska avgöras, vilket är ett av problemen om den nätverksbaserade brottsligheten ska bekämpas effektivt. Ett annat och med detta sammanhängande bekymmer är beskrivningen av brottet. Den straffrättsliga huvudregeln har sedan tidigare varit att det är en gärning – individualiserad i person, tid och rum – som utgör ett brott. Detta håller eventuellt på att förändras. Utifrån individualistiska synpunkter framstår det som problematiskt om en större kollektiv kontext får betydelse för brottsbeskrivningen. Hur den lagstiftande makten och domstolarna ska förhålla sig till svårigheterna med den nätverksbaserade brottsligheten är en ideologisk och politisk fråga som är beroende av vilka syften straffsystemet anses ha. (Less)
Abstract
The subject of this essay is if, and how, the form of criminal activity that is described in modern criminology as network-based crime is a problem for the individualism which modern Swedish criminal law is founded upon. This essay outlines some overarching ideas which might potentially help solve the problem. However, the purpose is not to bring a solution to the problem but to provide a deepened problematization. Is there a problem, and if so, how can it be described? The question may be answered in many different ways. The conclusion of the essay is that Swedish criminal law has been constructed first and foremost to protect the individual against oppression from the state. At the same time, it is a part of society’s law enforcement.... (More)
The subject of this essay is if, and how, the form of criminal activity that is described in modern criminology as network-based crime is a problem for the individualism which modern Swedish criminal law is founded upon. This essay outlines some overarching ideas which might potentially help solve the problem. However, the purpose is not to bring a solution to the problem but to provide a deepened problematization. Is there a problem, and if so, how can it be described? The question may be answered in many different ways. The conclusion of the essay is that Swedish criminal law has been constructed first and foremost to protect the individual against oppression from the state. At the same time, it is a part of society’s law enforcement. These different purposes give rise to a conflict of interest between, on the one hand, the rule of law (Rechtssicherheit) and on the other hand the efficiency of law enforcement. Swedish criminal law is built on the idea of an individual act and individual responsibility, which is related to its purpose of protecting the individual. This construction becomes problematic when the efficiency of law enforcement becomes dependent on sanctions targeting behaviors which can only be understood as morally blameworthy if seen as parts of a larger collective context. Swedish criminal law has not been shaped to deal with the kind of behavior that constitutes network-based crime. The law is based on ideas originating from a time when large-scale highly coordinated action was impossible. Today, fundamental principles of Swedish criminal law have become more of an obstacle for an efficient law enforcement than was previously the case. Another, and to this related, problem is the description of the individual crimes. Traditionally, crimes have as a rule been constituted by one decontextualized act, but in the last decades we have seen criminalizations which deviate from this tradition. Crimes which are, to a greater extent, contextualized are problematic from a traditional individualistic viewpoint. How the legislative and judicial powers are to view this problem and subsequently solve it is an ideological and political matter dependent on what purpose the system of criminal law is thought to have. (Less)
Please use this url to cite or link to this publication:
author
Embäck, Theodor LU
supervisor
organization
alternative title
What is the problem?
course
JURM02 20181
year
type
H3 - Professional qualifications (4 Years - )
subject
keywords
Nätverksbaserad brottslighet
language
Swedish
id
8941584
date added to LUP
2018-06-08 10:15:48
date last changed
2018-06-08 10:15:48
@misc{8941584,
  abstract     = {The subject of this essay is if, and how, the form of criminal activity that is described in modern criminology as network-based crime is a problem for the individualism which modern Swedish criminal law is founded upon. This essay outlines some overarching ideas which might potentially help solve the problem. However, the purpose is not to bring a solution to the problem but to provide a deepened problematization. Is there a problem, and if so, how can it be described? The question may be answered in many different ways. The conclusion of the essay is that Swedish criminal law has been constructed first and foremost to protect the individual against oppression from the state. At the same time, it is a part of society’s law enforcement. These different purposes give rise to a conflict of interest between, on the one hand, the rule of law (Rechtssicherheit) and on the other hand the efficiency of law enforcement. Swedish criminal law is built on the idea of an individual act and individual responsibility, which is related to its purpose of protecting the individual. This construction becomes problematic when the efficiency of law enforcement becomes dependent on sanctions targeting behaviors which can only be understood as morally blameworthy if seen as parts of a larger collective context. Swedish criminal law has not been shaped to deal with the kind of behavior that constitutes network-based crime. The law is based on ideas originating from a time when large-scale highly coordinated action was impossible. Today, fundamental principles of Swedish criminal law have become more of an obstacle for an efficient law enforcement than was previously the case. Another, and to this related, problem is the description of the individual crimes. Traditionally, crimes have as a rule been constituted by one decontextualized act, but in the last decades we have seen criminalizations which deviate from this tradition. Crimes which are, to a greater extent, contextualized are problematic from a traditional individualistic viewpoint. How the legislative and judicial powers are to view this problem and subsequently solve it is an ideological and political matter dependent on what purpose the system of criminal law is thought to have.},
  author       = {Embäck, Theodor},
  keyword      = {Nätverksbaserad brottslighet},
  language     = {swe},
  note         = {Student Paper},
  title        = {Vad är problemet? - Om hur den nätverksbaserade brottsligheten framkallar nya svårigheter för den individualistiska straffrätten},
  year         = {2018},
}