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Samhällsfarliga konflikter - En undersökning av begreppsdefinitionen med utgångspunkt i konflikten i Göteborgs hamn, samt en komparativ studie av hanteringen av samhällsfarliga konflikter i Sverige och Danmark

Jansson, Anna LU (2018) JURM02 20181
Department of Law
Faculty of Law
Abstract (Swedish)
I förevarande uppsats undersöks det svenska systemet för hantering av samhällsfarliga konflikter. Uppsatsen kommer dels att diskutera det svenska definitionsbegreppet av sådana konflikter med utgångspunkt i aktuell konflikt i Göteborgs hamn, dels genomföra en komparativ studie med det danska arbetsrättsliga systemet för att hantera uppkomsten av sådana konflikter.

Frågan om en närmare definition av begreppet samhällsfarlig konflikt har varit en återkommande diskussion i de svenska förarbetena. Uppsatsen har identifierat ett antal gemensamma bedömningsgrunder innebärande att det i första hand handlar om konfliktens grad och omfattning, att verksamhet i offentlig regi inte per automatik ska klassificeras som samhällsfarlig och att reella... (More)
I förevarande uppsats undersöks det svenska systemet för hantering av samhällsfarliga konflikter. Uppsatsen kommer dels att diskutera det svenska definitionsbegreppet av sådana konflikter med utgångspunkt i aktuell konflikt i Göteborgs hamn, dels genomföra en komparativ studie med det danska arbetsrättsliga systemet för att hantera uppkomsten av sådana konflikter.

Frågan om en närmare definition av begreppet samhällsfarlig konflikt har varit en återkommande diskussion i de svenska förarbetena. Uppsatsen har identifierat ett antal gemensamma bedömningsgrunder innebärande att det i första hand handlar om konfliktens grad och omfattning, att verksamhet i offentlig regi inte per automatik ska klassificeras som samhällsfarlig och att reella hot mot folkförsörjningen kan föranleda samhällsfara. I brist på faktiska situationer där sådana konsekvenser föranlett statlig intervention, eller beslut av någon av huvudavtalens nämnder, är det svårt att närmare specificera vilken påverkan en sådan konflikt måste ha på samhällsekonomin för att klassificeras som samhällsfarlig. Krav på hot mot folkförsörjningen torde dock innebära att det krävs ett reellt hot mot ekonomin i stort. Det borde således föreligga ett visst krav på en konflikts omfattning och varaktighet.

Konfliktsituationen i Göteborgs hamn har pågått i nästintill två år. Det pågår inga stridsåtgärder för tillfället men konflikten är inte ansedd som löst. Konfliktens konsekvenser har övervägande varit av ekonomisk karaktär. Ekonomiska konsekvenser och extra kostnader för näringslivet är som utgångspunkt inte tillräckligt för samhällsfara. Konsekvenser med grund i konflikten har dock i detta fall pågått under en längre period och påverkar fortfarande i stor utsträckning enskilda företagare, näringslivet och svensk import/export. Sammantaget är det således inte otänkbart att en klassificering av konflikten som samhällsfarlig är förenlig med svensk rätt. En klassificering som dock troligtvis skulle innebära ett brott mot Sveriges internationella åtaganden med hänvisning till den praxis som bl.a. utvecklats av ILO:s föreningsfrihetskommitté och Europarådets sociala kommitté i frågan.

Även den danska rätten saknar en tydlig definition av begreppet samhällsfarlig konflikt. Det finns inga lagbestämmelser för hantering av sådana konflikter, och till skillnad från Sverige innehåller de övergripande huvudavtalen inga bestämmelser för att säkerställa upprätthållandet av samhällsviktiga funktioner. Statliga interventioner har varit betydligt mer förekommande i Danmark än i Sverige, det synes även finnas en skillnad i vilka hänsyn som åberopas för att rättfärdiga en sådan. Det danska förlikningsmannainstitutet, Forligsinstitutionen, har en mer uttalad roll beträffande hantering av samhällsfarliga konflikter än sin svenska motsvarighet. Om varslad stridsåtgärd riskerar att drabba livsviktiga samhällsfunktioner, samhällsinstitutioner eller få stor samhällelig betydelse, har de danska förlikningsmännen möjlighet att skjuta upp åtgärderna i sammanlagt fyra veckor. En annan viktig skillnad är de danska förlikningsmännens befogenhet att besluta om medlemsomröstning beträffande framlagda medlingsförslag samt koppla samman flera förslag till ett gemensamt. En fragmenterad organisationsstruktur är troligtvis förklaringen till uppkomsten av aktuellt system. Ett system som med sin utbredda acceptans och plats i den danska modellen till stor del möjliggör statliga interventioner. (Less)
Abstract
The following thesis will discuss the Swedish system’s way of dealing with industrial action in essential services. The thesis will on the one hand discuss the Swedish definition of such essential services, focusing on the current conflict in the Gothenburg harbour, and on the other hand a comparative study with the Danish labour system, and its way of dealing with industrial action in essential services.

The issue of a more specific definition of essential services has been an on-going discussion in the Swedish legislative preparatory documents. Thus the thesis identifies common determination grounds, focusing on areas such as the conflicts degree and extent, which public sector activities should not be automatically defined as... (More)
The following thesis will discuss the Swedish system’s way of dealing with industrial action in essential services. The thesis will on the one hand discuss the Swedish definition of such essential services, focusing on the current conflict in the Gothenburg harbour, and on the other hand a comparative study with the Danish labour system, and its way of dealing with industrial action in essential services.

The issue of a more specific definition of essential services has been an on-going discussion in the Swedish legislative preparatory documents. Thus the thesis identifies common determination grounds, focusing on areas such as the conflicts degree and extent, which public sector activities should not be automatically defined as essential services, and that real threats towards public supply could constitute such essential services.

In the absence of actual situations that have resulted in state intervention, or decisions by one of the main agreements committees, it has proven difficult to closer specify what impact such a conflict might have on public economics and stability to be classified as a danger to an essential service. However, the requirement of a threat against public supply probably requires a real threat towards the economy at large, and thus there should be some requirements pertaining to the industrial action’s degree and extent.

The conflict in the Gothenburg Harbour has been on-going for about two years, and although there is currently no industrial action, the conflict is in no way solved. The conflict’s potential consequences are primarily economic. Economic consequences and extra costs for the business sector is generally not enough for a conflict to be deemed a danger to essential services. However, the conflict has been going on for a substantial time, and is greatly affecting individual business owners, the business sector at large and Swedish import/export. With all this taken into consideration, it appears likely that the conflict may be classified as a danger to essential services according to Swedish labour law. A classification like this would probably entail a breach of Sweden’s international commitments, referring to practice developed by the ILO Freedom of Association Committee and the European Committee of Social Rights on the issue.

Similarly to Swedish labour law, its Danish equivalent lacks a clear definition of essential services and potential dangers to them. There is no legislative guidance regarding dealing with such conflicts and contrary to the situation in Sweden, the main agreements lack provisions guaranteeing essential services. State interventions have been far more common in Denmark than in Sweden, and there seems to be differences in what considerations are deemed appropriate grounds for such interventions. Further, the Danish Settlement Institute has a far more pronounced role that its Swedish counterpart as regards dealing with conflicts in essential services. If industrial action is declared, risking vital societal functions, community institutions or other areas of societal significance, Danish public conciliators are able to postpone such action for a total of four weeks. Another important difference is the power the Danish public conciliators hold when it comes to deciding on a member vote on the mediation proposals and to combine several proposals. A fragmented organisational structure is probably one explanation for the current Danish system, a system that with its widespread acceptance and base in the Danish model, largely enables government interventions. (Less)
Please use this url to cite or link to this publication:
author
Jansson, Anna LU
supervisor
organization
alternative title
Industrial Action in Essential Services - A Study of the Definition Focusing on the Current Conflict in the Gothenburg Harbour, and a Comparative Study With the Danish Labour System and its Way of Dealing With Industrial Action in Essential Services
course
JURM02 20181
year
type
H3 - Professional qualifications (4 Years - )
subject
keywords
Kollektiv arbetsrätt, Samhällsfarliga konflikter
language
Swedish
id
8941795
date added to LUP
2018-06-13 10:38:44
date last changed
2018-06-13 10:38:44
@misc{8941795,
  abstract     = {The following thesis will discuss the Swedish system’s way of dealing with industrial action in essential services. The thesis will on the one hand discuss the Swedish definition of such essential services, focusing on the current conflict in the Gothenburg harbour, and on the other hand a comparative study with the Danish labour system, and its way of dealing with industrial action in essential services.

The issue of a more specific definition of essential services has been an on-going discussion in the Swedish legislative preparatory documents. Thus the thesis identifies common determination grounds, focusing on areas such as the conflicts degree and extent, which public sector activities should not be automatically defined as essential services, and that real threats towards public supply could constitute such essential services. 

In the absence of actual situations that have resulted in state intervention, or decisions by one of the main agreements committees, it has proven difficult to closer specify what impact such a conflict might have on public economics and stability to be classified as a danger to an essential service. However, the requirement of a threat against public supply probably requires a real threat towards the economy at large, and thus there should be some requirements pertaining to the industrial action’s degree and extent.

The conflict in the Gothenburg Harbour has been on-going for about two years, and although there is currently no industrial action, the conflict is in no way solved. The conflict’s potential consequences are primarily economic. Economic consequences and extra costs for the business sector is generally not enough for a conflict to be deemed a danger to essential services. However, the conflict has been going on for a substantial time, and is greatly affecting individual business owners, the business sector at large and Swedish import/export. With all this taken into consideration, it appears likely that the conflict may be classified as a danger to essential services according to Swedish labour law. A classification like this would probably entail a breach of Sweden’s international commitments, referring to practice developed by the ILO Freedom of Association Committee and the European Committee of Social Rights on the issue.

Similarly to Swedish labour law, its Danish equivalent lacks a clear definition of essential services and potential dangers to them. There is no legislative guidance regarding dealing with such conflicts and contrary to the situation in Sweden, the main agreements lack provisions guaranteeing essential services. State interventions have been far more common in Denmark than in Sweden, and there seems to be differences in what considerations are deemed appropriate grounds for such interventions. Further, the Danish Settlement Institute has a far more pronounced role that its Swedish counterpart as regards dealing with conflicts in essential services. If industrial action is declared, risking vital societal functions, community institutions or other areas of societal significance, Danish public conciliators are able to postpone such action for a total of four weeks. Another important difference is the power the Danish public conciliators hold when it comes to deciding on a member vote on the mediation proposals and to combine several proposals. A fragmented organisational structure is probably one explanation for the current Danish system, a system that with its widespread acceptance and base in the Danish model, largely enables government interventions.},
  author       = {Jansson, Anna},
  keyword      = {Kollektiv arbetsrätt,Samhällsfarliga konflikter},
  language     = {swe},
  note         = {Student Paper},
  title        = {Samhällsfarliga konflikter - En undersökning av begreppsdefinitionen med utgångspunkt i konflikten i Göteborgs hamn, samt en komparativ studie av hanteringen av samhällsfarliga konflikter i Sverige och Danmark},
  year         = {2018},
}