Advanced

Opening a new epoch of global ocean governance : a challenge for just benefit-sharing from the marine biodiversity of areas beyond national jurisdiction

Kasahara, Aya LU (2018) In Master Thesis Series in Environmental Studies and Sustainability Science MESM02 20181
LUCSUS (Lund University Centre for Sustainability Studies)
Abstract
The new legal framework for marine biodiversity of areas beyond national jurisdiction (BBNJ) will be formally developed under the United Nations due to demands to fill a legal gap addressing BBNJ loss and justly sharing benefits from BBNJ. Since there is no global legal framework for BBNJ even though related agreements exist (i.e., United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea and Convention on Biological Diversity), the safeguard has been required to conserve BBNJ. Simultaneously, unjust benefit-sharing from BBNJ is blamed, especially the utilization of marine genetic resources that possibly result in enormous benefits. Since such resources in the high seas and the seabed have been used on a first-come-first-serve basis, only some... (More)
The new legal framework for marine biodiversity of areas beyond national jurisdiction (BBNJ) will be formally developed under the United Nations due to demands to fill a legal gap addressing BBNJ loss and justly sharing benefits from BBNJ. Since there is no global legal framework for BBNJ even though related agreements exist (i.e., United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea and Convention on Biological Diversity), the safeguard has been required to conserve BBNJ. Simultaneously, unjust benefit-sharing from BBNJ is blamed, especially the utilization of marine genetic resources that possibly result in enormous benefits. Since such resources in the high seas and the seabed have been used on a first-come-first-serve basis, only some states have explored and exploited them yet all states have a legal right to access. Therefore, this situation leads the Global South’s complaints about unjust benefit-sharing from BBNJ. To change the current status, a discussion of the new framework of BBNJ is in place taking into account the existing agreements. The new agreement is expected to contribute to achieving Sustainable Development Goals, especially Goal 14.
Aiming to examine how the new framework will be achieved with a focus on the demand for more justly sharing benefits from BBNJ, this research employed two stages of reviewing the discussion. In the first stage, I compare norms of the existing global agreements, which affect on the discussion of just benefit-sharing in the new agreement through regime theory. I scrutinize the norms and their formation process by a constructivist approach. In the second stage, I focus the environmental justice context with employing the three dimensions of justice that Schlosberg (2004 & 2007) propose. Through document analysis from the latest discussion, I identify the expected just benefit-sharing in the new instrument.
Although the first-come-first-serve basis has been applied BBNJ, norms could be changed by technological developments and social circumstance, and then they lead to change regimes. The lessons learned from the existing agreements and the current discussion from the view of justice showed that consensus and sufficient participation to the new agreement would be one of the keys to achieving the just benefit-sharing. While the pressures from high-levels may push forward the negotiation, a satisfactory agreement is essential for effective implementation of the new agreement. Intellectual property rights differentiate this issue from other commons. Observing the intergovernmental conference and other external pressures will determine specific factors for the achievement of just benefit-sharing. (Less)
Abstract (Japanese)
国家管轄権区域外の海洋生物多様性(BBNJ)のための新たな法的枠組みが、現在の法的ギャップを埋めBBNJの損失に対処すること、またBBNJからの公正な利益配分への要求により国連の元で議論されることとなった。BBNJに関連する条約として国連海洋法条約及び生物多様性条約は存在するが、これらはBBNJを対象にしたグローバルな法的枠組みではないため、BBNJの保全のための予防手段が求められてきた。同時に、BBNJからの不公正な利益配分、特に多大な利益をもたらしうる海洋遺伝資源の利用に由来する利益配分が指摘されてきた。公海及び深海底の資源は全ての国がアクセスする法的権利を持っているものの、早い者勝ちで利用されており限られた国だけが探査及び開発を行ってきたことから、BBNJからの不公正な利益配分に対するglobal southの不満を引き起こした。この現状を変えるため、既存の条約を考慮しつつBBNJの新しい枠組みの議論が行われている。新たな枠組みは持続可能な開発目標の特に目標14の達成にも貢献することが期待されている。
新たな枠組みがどのようにBBNJからの公正な利益配分への要求に着目して達成するか検討することを目指し、本研究は二段階で議論の考察を行った。第一段階ではレジーム論を用いて、新協定における公正な利益配分の議論に影響を与えている既存の国際条約の規範を比較した。コンストラクティヴィズム(構成主義)からのアプローチにより、規範(norm)とその形成過程を精査した。第二段階では、Schlosberg(2004 & 2007)が提唱した正義の三面を用いて環境正義に着目した。直近の議論からの文書分析を通じて、新協定において期待される公正な利益配分を特定した。
... (More)
国家管轄権区域外の海洋生物多様性(BBNJ)のための新たな法的枠組みが、現在の法的ギャップを埋めBBNJの損失に対処すること、またBBNJからの公正な利益配分への要求により国連の元で議論されることとなった。BBNJに関連する条約として国連海洋法条約及び生物多様性条約は存在するが、これらはBBNJを対象にしたグローバルな法的枠組みではないため、BBNJの保全のための予防手段が求められてきた。同時に、BBNJからの不公正な利益配分、特に多大な利益をもたらしうる海洋遺伝資源の利用に由来する利益配分が指摘されてきた。公海及び深海底の資源は全ての国がアクセスする法的権利を持っているものの、早い者勝ちで利用されており限られた国だけが探査及び開発を行ってきたことから、BBNJからの不公正な利益配分に対するglobal southの不満を引き起こした。この現状を変えるため、既存の条約を考慮しつつBBNJの新しい枠組みの議論が行われている。新たな枠組みは持続可能な開発目標の特に目標14の達成にも貢献することが期待されている。
新たな枠組みがどのようにBBNJからの公正な利益配分への要求に着目して達成するか検討することを目指し、本研究は二段階で議論の考察を行った。第一段階ではレジーム論を用いて、新協定における公正な利益配分の議論に影響を与えている既存の国際条約の規範を比較した。コンストラクティヴィズム(構成主義)からのアプローチにより、規範(norm)とその形成過程を精査した。第二段階では、Schlosberg(2004 & 2007)が提唱した正義の三面を用いて環境正義に着目した。直近の議論からの文書分析を通じて、新協定において期待される公正な利益配分を特定した。
BBNJには早い者勝ちが適用されてきたが、規範は技術進歩と社会情勢により変化しうり、それがレジームの変化を引き起こすことが示唆された。正義から見た既存条約からの教訓と現在の議論の分析により、新協定へのコンセンサスと各国の充分な参加が公正な利益配分を達成するための鍵の一つであることを示唆した。ハイレベルからの圧力は交渉を前進させうるが、新協定の効果的な実施のためには満足のいく協定が不可欠である。知的財産権は本問題と他のコモンズに違いを生じさせている。今後の政府間交渉と外圧を考察することで公正な利益配分の達成のための特定の要因を決定することが出来るだろう。 (Less)
Please use this url to cite or link to this publication:
author
Kasahara, Aya LU
supervisor
organization
course
MESM02 20181
year
type
H2 - Master's Degree (Two Years)
subject
keywords
ocean governance, benefit-sharing, environmental justice, norms, sustainability science
publication/series
Master Thesis Series in Environmental Studies and Sustainability Science
report number
2018:008
language
English
id
8946002
date added to LUP
2018-06-07 09:01:51
date last changed
2018-06-07 09:01:51
@misc{8946002,
  abstract     = {The new legal framework for marine biodiversity of areas beyond national jurisdiction (BBNJ) will be formally developed under the United Nations due to demands to fill a legal gap addressing BBNJ loss and justly sharing benefits from BBNJ. Since there is no global legal framework for BBNJ even though related agreements exist (i.e., United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea and Convention on Biological Diversity), the safeguard has been required to conserve BBNJ. Simultaneously, unjust benefit-sharing from BBNJ is blamed, especially the utilization of marine genetic resources that possibly result in enormous benefits. Since such resources in the high seas and the seabed have been used on a first-come-first-serve basis, only some states have explored and exploited them yet all states have a legal right to access. Therefore, this situation leads the Global South’s complaints about unjust benefit-sharing from BBNJ. To change the current status, a discussion of the new framework of BBNJ is in place taking into account the existing agreements. The new agreement is expected to contribute to achieving Sustainable Development Goals, especially Goal 14.
Aiming to examine how the new framework will be achieved with a focus on the demand for more justly sharing benefits from BBNJ, this research employed two stages of reviewing the discussion. In the first stage, I compare norms of the existing global agreements, which affect on the discussion of just benefit-sharing in the new agreement through regime theory. I scrutinize the norms and their formation process by a constructivist approach. In the second stage, I focus the environmental justice context with employing the three dimensions of justice that Schlosberg (2004 & 2007) propose. Through document analysis from the latest discussion, I identify the expected just benefit-sharing in the new instrument. 
Although the first-come-first-serve basis has been applied BBNJ, norms could be changed by technological developments and social circumstance, and then they lead to change regimes. The lessons learned from the existing agreements and the current discussion from the view of justice showed that consensus and sufficient participation to the new agreement would be one of the keys to achieving the just benefit-sharing. While the pressures from high-levels may push forward the negotiation, a satisfactory agreement is essential for effective implementation of the new agreement. Intellectual property rights differentiate this issue from other commons. Observing the intergovernmental conference and other external pressures will determine specific factors for the achievement of just benefit-sharing.},
  author       = {Kasahara, Aya},
  keyword      = {ocean governance,benefit-sharing,environmental justice,norms,sustainability science},
  language     = {eng},
  note         = {Student Paper},
  series       = {Master Thesis Series in Environmental Studies and Sustainability Science},
  title        = {Opening a new epoch of global ocean governance : a challenge for just benefit-sharing from the marine biodiversity of areas beyond national jurisdiction},
  year         = {2018},
}