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Mikroplast på och i havsbotten : utbredningen av mikroplaster i marina bottensediment och dess påverkan på marina miljöer

Christiansen, Emma LU (2018) In Examensarbete i geologi GEOL01 20181
Department of Geology
Abstract (Swedish)
Förekomsten av plast i marina miljöer har under de senaste decennierna varit ett känt globalt problem. Flera nedbrytningsprocesser inverkar på plastavfallet, vilket orsakar fragmentering ned till fragment mindre än fem millimeter i storlek – kallade mikroplaster. Målet för denna studie är att öka förståelsen om mikroplaster i marina miljöer där följande frågeställningar bemöttes: Hur stor utbredning har mikroplaster i marina sediment och i vilka marina miljöer de återfinns. Kan mikroplasterna utgöra ett miljöproblem när de har sedimenterats i marina bottensediment? Metodiken gick ut på att samla data via databaser och sammanställa dessa för att besvara frågeställningarna. Mina resultat visar att mikroplasterna har nått en global utbredning... (More)
Förekomsten av plast i marina miljöer har under de senaste decennierna varit ett känt globalt problem. Flera nedbrytningsprocesser inverkar på plastavfallet, vilket orsakar fragmentering ned till fragment mindre än fem millimeter i storlek – kallade mikroplaster. Målet för denna studie är att öka förståelsen om mikroplaster i marina miljöer där följande frågeställningar bemöttes: Hur stor utbredning har mikroplaster i marina sediment och i vilka marina miljöer de återfinns. Kan mikroplasterna utgöra ett miljöproblem när de har sedimenterats i marina bottensediment? Metodiken gick ut på att samla data via databaser och sammanställa dessa för att besvara frågeställningarna. Mina resultat visar att mikroplasterna har nått en global utbredning i marina sediment, från djupet av Antarktiska oceanen till stränderna längs Hawaiis kust. Vidare finns det även flera utmaningar när mängderna mikroplast ska avgöras i marina sediment, såsom kontaminationsrisk av sedimentprover. Bentiska organismer kan interagera med mikroplasterna och via förtäring få skador på vävnader. Mikroplasterna kan adsorbera ämnen såsom långlivade organiska föroreningar (POP:s), tungmetaller och mikroorganismer, potentiellt sprida dessa till organismer eller nya marina miljöer. Dock är det fortfarande inte känt om mikroplaster kan orsaka negativa, kroniska effekter på hela bottenlevande populationer eller ekosystem. (Less)
Abstract
The abundance of plastic in marine environments has been a well-known global problem for the past decades. Multiple degrading processes effect plastic debris, causing fragmentation down to particle sizes smaller than five millimeters – named microplastics. The aim for this study is to extend the knowledge of microplastics in the marine environment by addressing the following questions: How wide-spread have microplastics become in the marine environments and in which settings can they be found? Are microplastics capable of causing environmental problems once deposited in marine sediments? The method for this literature study consisted of data base searches and compilation of relevant data aiming to answer the questions. My results show that... (More)
The abundance of plastic in marine environments has been a well-known global problem for the past decades. Multiple degrading processes effect plastic debris, causing fragmentation down to particle sizes smaller than five millimeters – named microplastics. The aim for this study is to extend the knowledge of microplastics in the marine environment by addressing the following questions: How wide-spread have microplastics become in the marine environments and in which settings can they be found? Are microplastics capable of causing environmental problems once deposited in marine sediments? The method for this literature study consisted of data base searches and compilation of relevant data aiming to answer the questions. My results show that microplastics have reached a global coverage in marine sediments, from the depths of the Southern Ocean to the beaches along the coast of Hawaii. But also, that several challenges are present when determining the amount of microplastics in marine sediments, for instance there is a large risk for contamination of the sediment samples. Benthic organisms can interact with microplastics and be affected with tissue damages by oral intake. Microplastics can adsorb substances such as persistent organic pollutants (POP:s), heavy metals and microorganisms, potentially spreading to other organisms or marine environments. But it is still not known if microplastics can cause negative, chronic effects on whole bottom-dwelling populations or ecosystems. (Less)
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author
Christiansen, Emma LU
supervisor
organization
course
GEOL01 20181
year
type
M2 - Bachelor Degree
subject
keywords
microplastics, global, marine sediments, benthic organisms, environmental impact, sedimentation process.
publication/series
Examensarbete i geologi
report number
540
language
Swedish
id
8947033
date added to LUP
2018-06-08 16:53:32
date last changed
2018-06-08 16:53:32
@misc{8947033,
  abstract     = {The abundance of plastic in marine environments has been a well-known global problem for the past decades. Multiple degrading processes effect plastic debris, causing fragmentation down to particle sizes smaller than five millimeters – named microplastics. The aim for this study is to extend the knowledge of microplastics in the marine environment by addressing the following questions: How wide-spread have microplastics become in the marine environments and in which settings can they be found? Are microplastics capable of causing environmental problems once deposited in marine sediments? The method for this literature study consisted of data base searches and compilation of relevant data aiming to answer the questions. My results show that microplastics have reached a global coverage in marine sediments, from the depths of the Southern Ocean to the beaches along the coast of Hawaii. But also, that several challenges are present when determining the amount of microplastics in marine sediments, for instance there is a large risk for contamination of the sediment samples. Benthic organisms can interact with microplastics and be affected with tissue damages by oral intake. Microplastics can adsorb substances such as persistent organic pollutants (POP:s), heavy metals and microorganisms, potentially spreading to other organisms or marine environments. But it is still not known if microplastics can cause negative, chronic effects on whole bottom-dwelling populations or ecosystems.},
  author       = {Christiansen, Emma},
  keyword      = {microplastics,global,marine sediments,benthic organisms,environmental impact,sedimentation process.},
  language     = {swe},
  note         = {Student Paper},
  series       = {Examensarbete i geologi},
  title        = {Mikroplast på och i havsbotten : utbredningen av mikroplaster i marina bottensediment och dess påverkan på marina miljöer},
  year         = {2018},
}