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Den digitala handelns fastighetsmarknad - Var ska E-handeln lokaliseras?

Håkansson, Eric LU and Nässén Odell, Linus LU (2018) VFTM01 20181
Real Estate Science
Abstract
The fact that e-commerce has increased significantly in recent years has not gone unnoticed, and its features have been marked in both private life as well as in business. The physical commerce has changed to an increased shopping through the internet, which is a development of the trade of goods that was one of the earliest commercial forms. Since the internet, and thereby the E-commerce, was launched in the early 1990s, the trend has increased rapidly and in the past twenty years, sales of goods sold on the internet have more than tenfold. Beyond the retail market, there are operations in the dark, which are also affected by an increased the E-commerce market. Within the real estate industry there is a segment called warehouse and... (More)
The fact that e-commerce has increased significantly in recent years has not gone unnoticed, and its features have been marked in both private life as well as in business. The physical commerce has changed to an increased shopping through the internet, which is a development of the trade of goods that was one of the earliest commercial forms. Since the internet, and thereby the E-commerce, was launched in the early 1990s, the trend has increased rapidly and in the past twenty years, sales of goods sold on the internet have more than tenfold. Beyond the retail market, there are operations in the dark, which are also affected by an increased the E-commerce market. Within the real estate industry there is a segment called warehouse and logistics aimed at commercial real estate with buildings built for warehouse and logistics operations. An increased number of E-commerce companies as well as an increasing sales-volume requires larger space to store and distribute the goods. The existing localization theories that are used today are not adapted for this type of stock and trade because of the unique requirements with E-commerce layers that must be met, including in terms of short lead times to the consumer.

The question then arises where warehouse and logistics properties used for E-commerce should be located and what factors are most important for an optimal location? The report also investigates if modern or traditional localization theories could be used to motivate the location that E-commerce companies can use for their businesses.

The purpose of this report is to investigate which parameters that are crucial at the location selection and what the optimal situation for an E-commerce warehouse is. In addition, it is also desired to investigate whether it is possible to apply an existing localization principle in this market. In order to answer these questions, a survey of the market and application of theoretical models on reality is required. This report aims to use regression analysis, interviews and location theory analyzed in GIS to answer the questions.

The regression describes a statistical relationship that, by using four different models, showed that there were only a few factors that had a major impact on an optimal E-trading location. The most influential variables are distance to major road (while other infrastructure had less impact), distance to any of the three largest cities (where an increased distance lead to a worsening position) and accessibility to university with a logistic education in nearest city. The interview studies responded to the impact of factors hard to measure. Here it was stated that partial tradition, coincidence and size of the company has affected where the properties lie today. Even according to the interviews, the labor force has been a major
part of the localization processes. Analyzes in the GIS of Localization Theorem Web's location production triangle has a large similarity to the center of gravity and shows that the least cost-generating modes lie mainly on the west coast and in Scania depending on the model used.

Through discussion and analysis of the results, it is concluded that localization theories are largely inapplicable, though some such as the center of gravity method or further developed web site production triangle provide more as a guide to each individual business location. The common factors that appear to apply to each location are distance to major road, number of major cities within two hours of driving and access to college. Other factors that can be included are opportunities for expansion, social issues relating to labor, municipalities' willingness to cooperate and partial tradition, but also by chance not all land and all premises are locatable.

Which locations that may be of interest to E-commerce companies have been produced using all three analyzers and have been decided at Eskilstuna, Örebro, Borås or Jönköping. Along the west coast around Gothenburg and Scania there may be pure economic gains from transport costs but only for guidance. It is therefore better not to locate these kinds of warehouse in direct connection with major cities, nor in a region between the metropolitan areas but advantageous to reach as large a customer base as possible with one day delivery. (Less)
Abstract (Swedish)
Att E-handeln ökat stort de senaste åren har inte gått ouppmärksammat och dess inslag har märkts både privat och inom näringslivet. Den fysiska handeln har ändrats handel via internet vilket är en utveckling från byteshandel som var en av de tidigaste handelsformerna. Sedan internet, och E-handelns, lansering i början av 1990-talet har utvecklingen gått snabbt och de senaste tjugo åren har omsättningen på varor som handlats på internet mer än tiodubblats. Förutom att handelsfastigheterna påverkas finns det verksamheter i skymundan som också påverkas från en ökning av denna marknad. Inom fastighetsbranschen finns ett segment som kallas lager och logistik som syftar på kommersiella fastigheter med byggnader byggda för lager- och... (More)
Att E-handeln ökat stort de senaste åren har inte gått ouppmärksammat och dess inslag har märkts både privat och inom näringslivet. Den fysiska handeln har ändrats handel via internet vilket är en utveckling från byteshandel som var en av de tidigaste handelsformerna. Sedan internet, och E-handelns, lansering i början av 1990-talet har utvecklingen gått snabbt och de senaste tjugo åren har omsättningen på varor som handlats på internet mer än tiodubblats. Förutom att handelsfastigheterna påverkas finns det verksamheter i skymundan som också påverkas från en ökning av denna marknad. Inom fastighetsbranschen finns ett segment som kallas lager och logistik som syftar på kommersiella fastigheter med byggnader byggda för lager- och logistikverksamhet. Genom att handelsföretagens antal ökar och volymerna blir större krävs mer yta för att lagra och distribuera varor. De befintliga lokaliseringsteorier som används idag är inte anpassade för den här typen av lager och handel då det finns unika krav med E-handelslager som måste uppfyllas, bland annat i form av korta ledtider till konsumenten.

Frågan är då var dessa lager- och logistikfastigheter ska lokaliseras och vilka faktorer för läget som är viktigast? Vidare undersöks om moderna eller klassiska lokaliseringsteorier kan användas för att motivera lägen som E-handelsföretag kan använda för sina verksamheter.

Syftet med denna rapport är att undersöka vilka parametrar som är avgörande vid lokaliseringsvalet och vilket det optimala läget för ett E-handelslager är. Utöver detta önskas även undersöka ifall det är möjligt att tillämpa en befintlig lokaliseringsteori på denna marknad. För att svara på frågorna krävs undersökning av marknaden och applicering av teoretiska modeller på verkligheten. Denna rapport ämnar använda regression, intervjuer och lokaliseringsteori analyserad i GIS för att besvara frågeställningen.

Regressionen beskriver ett statistiskt samband som med hjälp av fyra olika modeller påvisade att det endast var få faktorer som hade stor påverkan på ett optimalt E-handelsläge. Modellen visade att det som påverkade läget mest var avstånd till större väg (medan annan infrastruktur hade mindre påverkan), avstånd till någon av de tre största städerna (där ett ökat avstånd kan negativ påverkan), samt tillgång till högskola med logistikutbildning i närmsta stad. Intervjustudien gav svar på mjuka faktorers påverkan. Här angavs att delvis tradition, tillfälle, och storleken på bolaget har påverkat var fastigheterna ligger idag. Enligt intervjuerna har även arbetskraftsfaktorn varit en stor del i lokaliseringsprocesserna.
Analysen i GIS av lokaliseringsteorin Weber’s location-production triangle har stor liknelse till tyngdpunktsmetoden och visar att de lägen som genererar minst kostnad ligger främst på västkusten samt i Skåne beroende vilken modell som använts.

Genom diskussion och analys av resultaten dras slutsatsen att lokaliseringsteorier är i stor del icke-tillämpningsbara, dock vissa som till exempel tyngdpunktsmetoden eller vidareutvecklad Weber’s location-production triangle agera mer som en vägledning till var ett enskilt företag ska lokalisera sig. Gällande vilka faktorer som är viktiga vid lokalisering av en logistikfastighet för E-handel är det också olika från fall till fall. De gemensamma faktorer som tycks gälla varje lokalisering är avstånd till större väg, antal stora städer inom två timmars bilfärd och tillgång till högskola. Andra faktorer som kan räknas in är möjlighet till expansion, sociala frågor kring arbetskraft, kommuners samarbetsvilja och delvis tradition men också timing då inte all mark och alla lokaler är lokaliseringsbara.

Vilka lägen som kan tänkas vara intressanta för E-handelsföretag har tagits fram med hjälp av alla tre analyser och har bestämts till Eskilstuna, Örebro, Borås eller Jönköping. Längs västkusten kring Göteborg och Skåne kan det finnas rena ekonomiska vinster från transportkostnader men ska endast ses som vägledning. Det är därmed bättre att inte ligga i direktanslutning till stora städer, och inte heller i ett område mitt emellan storstäderna utan önskan är att nå en så stor kundkrets som möjligt med endagarsleverans. (Less)
Please use this url to cite or link to this publication:
author
Håkansson, Eric LU and Nässén Odell, Linus LU
supervisor
organization
alternative title
The digital commerce real estate market
course
VFTM01 20181
year
type
H3 - Professional qualifications (4 Years - )
subject
keywords
E-handel, logistik, lager, fastighet, lokaliseringsteori, regression, intervju, GIS
other publication id
ISRN/LUTVDG/TVLM/18/5420 SE
language
Swedish
id
8948065
date added to LUP
2018-06-12 10:42:57
date last changed
2018-06-12 10:42:57
@misc{8948065,
  abstract     = {The fact that e-commerce has increased significantly in recent years has not gone unnoticed, and its features have been marked in both private life as well as in business. The physical commerce has changed to an increased shopping through the internet, which is a development of the trade of goods that was one of the earliest commercial forms. Since the internet, and thereby the E-commerce, was launched in the early 1990s, the trend has increased rapidly and in the past twenty years, sales of goods sold on the internet have more than tenfold. Beyond the retail market, there are operations in the dark, which are also affected by an increased the E-commerce market. Within the real estate industry there is a segment called warehouse and logistics aimed at commercial real estate with buildings built for warehouse and logistics operations. An increased number of E-commerce companies as well as an increasing sales-volume requires larger space to store and distribute the goods. The existing localization theories that are used today are not adapted for this type of stock and trade because of the unique requirements with E-commerce layers that must be met, including in terms of short lead times to the consumer.

The question then arises where warehouse and logistics properties used for E-commerce should be located and what factors are most important for an optimal location? The report also investigates if modern or traditional localization theories could be used to motivate the location that E-commerce companies can use for their businesses.

The purpose of this report is to investigate which parameters that are crucial at the location selection and what the optimal situation for an E-commerce warehouse is. In addition, it is also desired to investigate whether it is possible to apply an existing localization principle in this market. In order to answer these questions, a survey of the market and application of theoretical models on reality is required. This report aims to use regression analysis, interviews and location theory analyzed in GIS to answer the questions. 

The regression describes a statistical relationship that, by using four different models, showed that there were only a few factors that had a major impact on an optimal E-trading location. The most influential variables are distance to major road (while other infrastructure had less impact), distance to any of the three largest cities (where an increased distance lead to a worsening position) and accessibility to university with a logistic education in nearest city. The interview studies responded to the impact of factors hard to measure. Here it was stated that partial tradition, coincidence and size of the company has affected where the properties lie today. Even according to the interviews, the labor force has been a major
part of the localization processes. Analyzes in the GIS of Localization Theorem Web's location production triangle has a large similarity to the center of gravity and shows that the least cost-generating modes lie mainly on the west coast and in Scania depending on the model used.

Through discussion and analysis of the results, it is concluded that localization theories are largely inapplicable, though some such as the center of gravity method or further developed web site production triangle provide more as a guide to each individual business location. The common factors that appear to apply to each location are distance to major road, number of major cities within two hours of driving and access to college. Other factors that can be included are opportunities for expansion, social issues relating to labor, municipalities' willingness to cooperate and partial tradition, but also by chance not all land and all premises are locatable.

Which locations that may be of interest to E-commerce companies have been produced using all three analyzers and have been decided at Eskilstuna, Örebro, Borås or Jönköping. Along the west coast around Gothenburg and Scania there may be pure economic gains from transport costs but only for guidance. It is therefore better not to locate these kinds of warehouse in direct connection with major cities, nor in a region between the metropolitan areas but advantageous to reach as large a customer base as possible with one day delivery.},
  author       = {Håkansson, Eric and Nässén Odell, Linus},
  keyword      = {E-handel,logistik,lager,fastighet,lokaliseringsteori,regression,intervju,GIS},
  language     = {swe},
  note         = {Student Paper},
  title        = {Den digitala handelns fastighetsmarknad - Var ska E-handeln lokaliseras?},
  year         = {2018},
}