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Skiljeavtal och dess giltighet - En utredning om skiljeavtalets tolkning vid behörighetsfrågor

Furenmo, Anna LU (2018) HARH01 20181
Department of Business Law
Abstract
When two parties formulate a contract, several clauses are to be considered. In commercial agreements, a clause regulating which dispute resolution method should be applied on future conflicts is usually included. The dominating alternative dispute resolution is arbitration. Arbitration is a type of a private dispute resolution method, where an arbitration panel has the authority to try dispute questions and reach a solution which is equally binding as a court order.

The dispute clause is considered an independent contract and is defined as a dispute contract. The contract is unique because it is regulated by both the contact law and the procedural law. Furthermore, the contract allows a type of private jurisdiction which restricts the... (More)
When two parties formulate a contract, several clauses are to be considered. In commercial agreements, a clause regulating which dispute resolution method should be applied on future conflicts is usually included. The dominating alternative dispute resolution is arbitration. Arbitration is a type of a private dispute resolution method, where an arbitration panel has the authority to try dispute questions and reach a solution which is equally binding as a court order.

The dispute clause is considered an independent contract and is defined as a dispute contract. The contract is unique because it is regulated by both the contact law and the procedural law. Furthermore, the contract allows a type of private jurisdiction which restricts the right to a public trail. To formulate a valid dispute contract, a specific legal relationship must be identified and the dispute question must be dispositive.

Various views on how a dispute contract should be interpreted has been thoroughly discussed in doctrine. Regarding the validity of the contract, a restrictive and an extensive interpretation method has been proposed. A restrictive interpretation finds support in article 6 EKMR. An extensive interpretation finds support the general interpretation principals within contract law.
Interpretation of the dispute question has also been discussed. The Supreme court has suggested a few different doctrines which are to be applied. However, uncertainty about when these doctrines should be applied still exists.

Uncertainty about how a dispute contract and the dispute questions should be interpreted leads to complications when formulation the contract. If a contract is poorly formulated it could result in unwanted consequences, where a party can be stripped of the right to a public trail or that the process is ineffectively conducted.
Furthermore, an uncertainty of how the dispute contract should be interpreted could lead to parallel processes regarding the same dispute question. These types of processes results in infectivity, which is damaging for the party as well as the public. (Less)
Abstract (Swedish)
När två parter formulerar ett avtal behandlas ett antal olika klausuler. I kommersiella avtal regleras ofta vilken tvistlösningsmetod som ska tillämpas på framtida tvister. Den dominerande metoden är skiljeförfarande. Skiljeförfarande är en typ av privat tvistelösningsform, där en skiljenämnd har behörighet att pröva tvistefrågor och meddela ett bindande dom.

Skiljeklausulen anses vara ett självständigt avtal och benämns således skiljeavtal. Avtalet är av unik beskaffenhet då den har processrättsliga och avtalsrättsliga inslag. Vidare tillåter avtalet en typ av rättskipning och inskränker således rättigheten till en offentlig domstol.
För att ett skiljeavtal ska anses vara ett skiljeavtal måste det identifiera ett specifikt... (More)
När två parter formulerar ett avtal behandlas ett antal olika klausuler. I kommersiella avtal regleras ofta vilken tvistlösningsmetod som ska tillämpas på framtida tvister. Den dominerande metoden är skiljeförfarande. Skiljeförfarande är en typ av privat tvistelösningsform, där en skiljenämnd har behörighet att pröva tvistefrågor och meddela ett bindande dom.

Skiljeklausulen anses vara ett självständigt avtal och benämns således skiljeavtal. Avtalet är av unik beskaffenhet då den har processrättsliga och avtalsrättsliga inslag. Vidare tillåter avtalet en typ av rättskipning och inskränker således rättigheten till en offentlig domstol.
För att ett skiljeavtal ska anses vara ett skiljeavtal måste det identifiera ett specifikt rättsförhållande samt innefatta tvistefrågor som är dispositiva.

Olika ståndpunkter för hur skiljeavtal bör tolkas för att skiljemän ska ha behörighet diskuteras flitigt i doktrin. Gällande om ett skiljeavtal ska anses giltigt har en restriktiv och en extensiv tolkning presenterats. En restriktiv tolkning finner stöd i bland annat artikel 6 EKMR. En extensiv tolkning finner stöd i allmänna tolkningsprinciper och präglas av den avtalsrättsliga principen om partsautonomi. Även tolkningen av tvistefrågor är omdiskuterat. HD har fastställt ett antal olika doktriner som kan tillämpas. Dock råder en viss oklarhet om när dessa doktriner bör användas.

Osäkerhet kring hur skiljeavtal och tvistefrågor ska tolkas leder till en svårighet att formulera skiljeavtal. Om ett avtal är illa utformat kan det resultera i oönskade konsekvenser där en part kan fråntas en rättighet till allmän domstol eller att en process hanteras ekonomiskt ineffektivt.
Vidare kan en osäkerhet i tolkning leda till parallella processer gällande en och samma tvistefråga. Dessa typer av processer leder till en ineffektivitet som är skadlig för företag såväl som för allmänheten. (Less)
Please use this url to cite or link to this publication:
author
Furenmo, Anna LU
supervisor
organization
course
HARH01 20181
year
type
M2 - Bachelor Degree
subject
keywords
Skiljeavtal, tvistelösning, skiljeförfarande
language
Swedish
id
8949608
date added to LUP
2018-06-20 11:40:48
date last changed
2018-06-20 11:40:48
@misc{8949608,
  abstract     = {When two parties formulate a contract, several clauses are to be considered. In commercial agreements, a clause regulating which dispute resolution method should be applied on future conflicts is usually included. The dominating alternative dispute resolution is arbitration. Arbitration is a type of a private dispute resolution method, where an arbitration panel has the authority to try dispute questions and reach a solution which is equally binding as a court order. 

The dispute clause is considered an independent contract and is defined as a dispute contract. The contract is unique because it is regulated by both the contact law and the procedural law. Furthermore, the contract allows a type of private jurisdiction which restricts the right to a public trail. To formulate a valid dispute contract, a specific legal relationship must be identified and the dispute question must be dispositive. 

Various views on how a dispute contract should be interpreted has been thoroughly discussed in doctrine. Regarding the validity of the contract, a restrictive and an extensive interpretation method has been proposed. A restrictive interpretation finds support in article 6 EKMR. An extensive interpretation finds support the general interpretation principals within contract law. 
Interpretation of the dispute question has also been discussed. The Supreme court has suggested a few different doctrines which are to be applied. However, uncertainty about when these doctrines should be applied still exists. 

Uncertainty about how a dispute contract and the dispute questions should be interpreted leads to complications when formulation the contract. If a contract is poorly formulated it could result in unwanted consequences, where a party can be stripped of the right to a public trail or that the process is ineffectively conducted. 
Furthermore, an uncertainty of how the dispute contract should be interpreted could lead to parallel processes regarding the same dispute question. These types of processes results in infectivity, which is damaging for the party as well as the public.},
  author       = {Furenmo, Anna},
  keyword      = {Skiljeavtal,tvistelösning,skiljeförfarande},
  language     = {swe},
  note         = {Student Paper},
  title        = {Skiljeavtal och dess giltighet - En utredning om skiljeavtalets tolkning vid behörighetsfrågor},
  year         = {2018},
}