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Försäkringsplikt enligt AB 04

Spaak, Robin LU (2018) JURM02 20181
Department of Law
Faculty of Law
Abstract (Swedish)
Den riskfördelning som AB 04 föreskriver anses utmärka sig i förhållande till andra standardavtal som tillämpas utanför byggbranschen. Entreprenören anses ha ett osedvanligt strängt ansvar som dessutom sträcker sig över en lång tid, samtidigt som reklamationstiden är relativt kort. Något som också särpräglar AB 04 är att det där finns en avtalad plikt för entreprenören att hålla entreprenaden försäkrad. Frågan är om och i så fall i vilken utsträckning försäkringsplikten inverkar på den riskfördelning som följer av AB 04. Uppsatsen syftar till att besvara denna fråga.

För att ta reda på om försäkringsplikten i AB 04 påverkar den riskfördelning som AB 04 föreskriver, kartlägger uppsatsen dels omfattningen av parternas ansvar och dels... (More)
Den riskfördelning som AB 04 föreskriver anses utmärka sig i förhållande till andra standardavtal som tillämpas utanför byggbranschen. Entreprenören anses ha ett osedvanligt strängt ansvar som dessutom sträcker sig över en lång tid, samtidigt som reklamationstiden är relativt kort. Något som också särpräglar AB 04 är att det där finns en avtalad plikt för entreprenören att hålla entreprenaden försäkrad. Frågan är om och i så fall i vilken utsträckning försäkringsplikten inverkar på den riskfördelning som följer av AB 04. Uppsatsen syftar till att besvara denna fråga.

För att ta reda på om försäkringsplikten i AB 04 påverkar den riskfördelning som AB 04 föreskriver, kartlägger uppsatsen dels omfattningen av parternas ansvar och dels omfattningen av entreprenörens försäkringsplikt. Vid utförandet av denna undersökning har den rättsdogmatiska metoden tillämpats.

Undersökningen utvisade att omfattningen av entreprenörens försäkringsplikt preciseras genom den så kallade ”minimiomfattningen” som är bifogad till AMA AF. Minimiomfattningen föreskriver att entreprenören måste teckna allriskförsäkring och ansvarsförsäkring för entreprenaden, där beställaren ska vara medförsäkrad. Att beställaren medförsäkras innebär att denne kan ta försäkringen i anspråk utan entreprenörens medverkan. Vidare föreskriver minimiomfattningen vilket skydd som minst måste omfattas av villkoren för dessa försäkringar för att entreprenören ska anses leva upp till försäkringsplikten enligt AB 04. Skulle entreprenören inte efterkomma plikten att teckna föreskrivna försäkringar så inträder denne som självförsäkrare och blir då ersättningsskyldig för skador i motsvarande mån som om försäkringarna hade blivit enligt minimiomfattningen.

Under entreprenadtiden har entreprenören objektsansvaret för entreprenaden. Detta innebär att entreprenören som huvudregel ansvarar för skador inträffat under entreprenadtiden, exempelvis skador som uppstår genom olyckshändelser eller stölder m.m. Från huvudregeln gör AB 04 undantag för skador som beror på beställaren eller dennes ibruktagande av entreprenaden samt för force majeur. För sådana skador ansvarar istället beställaren.

Det har genom undersökningen framgått, att entreprenörens objektsansvar i själva verket är försäkrat genom den allriskförsäkring som ska tecknas enligt försäkringsplikten som AB 04 föreskriver. Denna försäkring gäller, under entreprenadtiden, oberoende av parternas inbördes ansvar och lämnar ersättning för oförutsedd fysisk skada eller förlust av den försäkrade egendomen. Av denna anledning kan entreprenörens objektsansvar i praktiken inte alls ses som särskilt strängt. Skulle entreprenören bli skadeståndsskyldig gentemot beställaren för skador som uppstått på annat än entreprenaden ska ansvarsförsäkringen gälla för detta enligt minimiomfattningen. Detta innebär att det finns en ekonomisk trygghet för att beställaren får ersättning för eventuella skador (på annat än entreprenaden) som uppstår på grund av exempelvis eventuell culpa från entreprenörens sida i samband med entreprenadens utförande.

Under garantitiden är huvudregeln att entreprenören inte ansvarar för skador på entreprenaden. Ett undantag är dock att entreprenören ansvarar för följdskador på entreprenaden som framträder under garantitiden och som uppstår på grund av fel i entreprenaden som entreprenören ansvarar för. Entreprenören ansvarar även för följdskador på annat än entreprenaden samt för skador som denne vållat genom culpa (och således ansvarar för enligt skadeståndslagen). Ansvaret för följdskador på annat än entreprenaden är förenat med en beloppsbegränsning. Denna beloppsbegränsning kan, med undantag för fall av grov vårdslöshet och åsidosättande av säkerhetsföreskrifter, inte kringgås genom åberopande av skadeståndslagen.

Eftersom minimiomfattningen inte uppdaterats för att matcha den garantitid som följer av AB 04 innehåller den inget krav om att allriskförsäkring måste finnas under hela garantitiden, även om detta varit tanken. Denna oönskade lucka i försäkringsskyddet har dock täppts till av försäkringsbolagen, som i regel utformat sina allriskförsäkringar så att de likväl gäller under hela garantitiden. Under garantitiden ska allriskförsäkringen, enligt minimiomfattningen, gälla för oförutsedd fysisk skada på entreprenaden som entreprenören ansvarar för enligt AB 04. Att entreprenören ansvarar enligt 04 har beställaren bevisbördan för under garantitiden. Eftersom parternas inbördes ansvar, under garantitiden, måste utredas för att allriskförsäkringen ska kunna tas i anspråk blir allriskförsäkringens inverkan på ansvarsfördelningen mindre påtaglig än vad som är fallet under entreprenadtiden. Ansvarsförsäkringen under garantitiden ska, enligt minimiomfattningen, gälla för den garanti som entreprenören enligt AB 04 lämnar till beställaren. På så sätt inverkar ansvarsförsäkringen i praktiken på ansvarsfördelningen mellan parterna under garantitiden på så vis att ansvarsförsäkringen blir en (ekonomisk) ”garanti för garantin”.

Efter garantitidens slut ansvarar entreprenören endast för följdskador som uppstått till följd av väsentliga fel i entreprenaden som denne orsakat genom att agera vårdslöst. För att dessa förutsättningar är uppfyllda har beställaren bevisbördan. Efter garantitidens slut finns inte längre någon plikt för entreprenören att hålla entreprenaden försäkrad. Försäkringsplikten i AB 04 får således ingen direkt betydelse för parternas ansvarsfördelning efter garantitidens slut. (Less)
Abstract
It is a common opinion that the risk management that comes with AB 04 differs from the risk management in other standard contracts that is used in other fields than construction. The contractor is thought to have a uncommonly heavy burden in carrying the risk for the construction and the time, during which the contractor is carrying the risk, is stretching over a long time. Another thing that is distinctive for AB 04 is that it is obligating the contractor to insure the construction. The question is if the contractor’s obligation to insure is affecting the risk that comes with AB 04. The purpose of this thesis is to answer that question.

In order to answer the mentioned question the extent of the parties risks and the extent of the... (More)
It is a common opinion that the risk management that comes with AB 04 differs from the risk management in other standard contracts that is used in other fields than construction. The contractor is thought to have a uncommonly heavy burden in carrying the risk for the construction and the time, during which the contractor is carrying the risk, is stretching over a long time. Another thing that is distinctive for AB 04 is that it is obligating the contractor to insure the construction. The question is if the contractor’s obligation to insure is affecting the risk that comes with AB 04. The purpose of this thesis is to answer that question.

In order to answer the mentioned question the extent of the parties risks and the extent of the contractors obligation to insure the construction is examined. The survey is performed in accordance with the legal method.

The survey showed that the extent of the contractor’s obligation to insure is specified in the so-called ”minimum extent” (”minimiomfattningen”) that is attached to AMA AF. The minimum extent dictates that the contractor must get an ”allrisk”-insurance and a liability insurance for the construction, where the purchaser must be co insured. The extent of these insurances must be in accordance with the minimum extent in order for the contractor to fulfil the obligation to insure the construction. When the purchaser is co insured he or she can use the insurance by contacting the insurance company on their own. The purchaser is therefore not depending on the contractor in getting damages covered by the insurance. If the contractor should fail to fulfil the obligation to insure, he or she would be forced to take the role of insuring the construction on their own and in the same extent as if the adequate insurance protection would had been in place.

During the construction time (”entreprenadtiden”) the contractor have an object-responsibility for the construction. This means that the main principle is that the contractor is responsible for damages that occur during the construction time, for example accidents and thefts etc. Damaged caused by the purchaser or by the fact that he or her has taken the construction in use is excepted from the main principle and so are also damages caused by force majeur. When there is an exception from the main principle, the purchaser is responsible for the damages.

The survey showed that the contractor’s object-responsibility is actually insured by the insurances that come with the contractor’s obligation to insure the construction according to AB 04. During the construction time, the ”allrisk”-insurance is independent of the parties’ responsibilities according to AB 04 and compensates for all damages caused by unforeseen physical damages on, or losses of, the insured property. For this reason the contractors object-responsibility really is not much of a heavy burden for the contractor at all. If the contractor should be liable for damages that are caused on other property than the construction, the liability insurance can be used for the damages according to the minimum extent. This means that there is a financial security, assuring that the purchaser is getting an economic compensation for damages (on other property than the construction) that occurs as a result of, for example, the contractor’s negligence while performing the construction.

During the warranty time (”garantitiden”) the main principle is that the contractor is not responsible for damages on the construction. An exception, however, is that the contractor is responsible for consequential damages that emerges during the warranty time and that occurs as a consequence of errors in the construction, for which the contractor answers according to AB 04. Furthermore the contractor is responsible for consequential damages on other property than the construction if it is caused by his or hers negligence (whereby the contractor answers according to skadeståndslagen). The responsibility for consequential damages on other property than the construction is limited economically. The amount limitation can only be bypassed in cases of gross negligence by the contractor and cannot in other cases be bypassed by invoking skadeståndslagen instead of AB 04.

As a consequence of that the minimum extent has not been updated in order to match the warranty time that AB 04 is prescribing, there is no obligation to insure the construction during the whole warranty time, even though that was the goal. The unwanted gap in the insurance protection has however been repaired by the insurance companies, whom in general has shaped their insurance products to match the (whole) warranty time in AB 04. During the warranty time, the ”allrisk”-insurance should include unforeseen physical damages on the construction for which the contractor is responsible according to AB 04. During the warranty time, the purchaser has the burden of proving that the constructor is in fact responsible for the damage. As a consequence of that the parties responsibilities have to be examined in order to use the ”allrisk”-insurance during the warranty time, the ”allrisk”-insurance has a limited effect on the risk management that is prescribed in AB 04 during the warranty time. During the warranty time, the liability insurance shall, according to the minimum extent, include the contractor’s warranty that is prescribed by AB 04. Thusly the liability insurance works as an (economic) “warranty for the warranty”.

When the warranty time is over, the contractor is only responsible for consequential damages that occurs as a result of severe errors in the construction that is caused by the his or hers negligence. The purchaser has the burden of proof for the fact that this conditions is fulfilled. After the warranty time has come to an end, there is no longer a obligation for the contractor to insure the construction. Thusly the obligation to insure the construction according to AB 04 is no longer effecting the risk management according to AB 04 in a direct sense. (Less)
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author
Spaak, Robin LU
supervisor
organization
alternative title
Obligation to insure according to AB 04
course
JURM02 20181
year
type
H3 - Professional qualifications (4 Years - )
subject
keywords
Försäkringsrätt, avtalsrätt, entreprenadrätt, försäkringsplikt, självförsäkrare, entreprenadförsäkring, försäkring, kontraheringsplikt, kontraheringstvång, AB 04, entreprenad, entreprenören, beställaren, riskfördelning, allriskförsäkring, ansvarsförsäkring.
language
Swedish
id
8955501
date added to LUP
2018-09-07 14:49:08
date last changed
2018-09-07 14:49:08
@misc{8955501,
  abstract     = {It is a common opinion that the risk management that comes with AB 04 differs from the risk management in other standard contracts that is used in other fields than construction. The contractor is thought to have a uncommonly heavy burden in carrying the risk for the construction and the time, during which the contractor is carrying the risk, is stretching over a long time. Another thing that is distinctive for AB 04 is that it is obligating the contractor to insure the construction. The question is if the contractor’s obligation to insure is affecting the risk that comes with AB 04. The purpose of this thesis is to answer that question.

In order to answer the mentioned question the extent of the parties risks and the extent of the contractors obligation to insure the construction is examined. The survey is performed in accordance with the legal method.

The survey showed that the extent of the contractor’s obligation to insure is specified in the so-called ”minimum extent” (”minimiomfattningen”) that is attached to AMA AF. The minimum extent dictates that the contractor must get an ”allrisk”-insurance and a liability insurance for the construction, where the purchaser must be co insured. The extent of these insurances must be in accordance with the minimum extent in order for the contractor to fulfil the obligation to insure the construction. When the purchaser is co insured he or she can use the insurance by contacting the insurance company on their own. The purchaser is therefore not depending on the contractor in getting damages covered by the insurance. If the contractor should fail to fulfil the obligation to insure, he or she would be forced to take the role of insuring the construction on their own and in the same extent as if the adequate insurance protection would had been in place. 

During the construction time (”entreprenadtiden”) the contractor have an object-responsibility for the construction. This means that the main principle is that the contractor is responsible for damages that occur during the construction time, for example accidents and thefts etc. Damaged caused by the purchaser or by the fact that he or her has taken the construction in use is excepted from the main principle and so are also damages caused by force majeur. When there is an exception from the main principle, the purchaser is responsible for the damages.

The survey showed that the contractor’s object-responsibility is actually insured by the insurances that come with the contractor’s obligation to insure the construction according to AB 04. During the construction time, the ”allrisk”-insurance is independent of the parties’ responsibilities according to AB 04 and compensates for all damages caused by unforeseen physical damages on, or losses of, the insured property. For this reason the contractors object-responsibility really is not much of a heavy burden for the contractor at all. If the contractor should be liable for damages that are caused on other property than the construction, the liability insurance can be used for the damages according to the minimum extent. This means that there is a financial security, assuring that the purchaser is getting an economic compensation for damages (on other property than the construction) that occurs as a result of, for example, the contractor’s negligence while performing the construction.

During the warranty time (”garantitiden”) the main principle is that the contractor is not responsible for damages on the construction. An exception, however, is that the contractor is responsible for consequential damages that emerges during the warranty time and that occurs as a consequence of errors in the construction, for which the contractor answers according to AB 04. Furthermore the contractor is responsible for consequential damages on other property than the construction if it is caused by his or hers negligence (whereby the contractor answers according to skadeståndslagen). The responsibility for consequential damages on other property than the construction is limited economically. The amount limitation can only be bypassed in cases of gross negligence by the contractor and cannot in other cases be bypassed by invoking skadeståndslagen instead of AB 04.

As a consequence of that the minimum extent has not been updated in order to match the warranty time that AB 04 is prescribing, there is no obligation to insure the construction during the whole warranty time, even though that was the goal. The unwanted gap in the insurance protection has however been repaired by the insurance companies, whom in general has shaped their insurance products to match the (whole) warranty time in AB 04. During the warranty time, the ”allrisk”-insurance should include unforeseen physical damages on the construction for which the contractor is responsible according to AB 04. During the warranty time, the purchaser has the burden of proving that the constructor is in fact responsible for the damage. As a consequence of that the parties responsibilities have to be examined in order to use the ”allrisk”-insurance during the warranty time, the ”allrisk”-insurance has a limited effect on the risk management that is prescribed in AB 04 during the warranty time. During the warranty time, the liability insurance shall, according to the minimum extent, include the contractor’s warranty that is prescribed by AB 04. Thusly the liability insurance works as an (economic) “warranty for the warranty”.

When the warranty time is over, the contractor is only responsible for consequential damages that occurs as a result of severe errors in the construction that is caused by the his or hers negligence. The purchaser has the burden of proof for the fact that this conditions is fulfilled. After the warranty time has come to an end, there is no longer a obligation for the contractor to insure the construction. Thusly the obligation to insure the construction according to AB 04 is no longer effecting the risk management according to AB 04 in a direct sense.},
  author       = {Spaak, Robin},
  keyword      = {Försäkringsrätt,avtalsrätt,entreprenadrätt,försäkringsplikt,självförsäkrare,entreprenadförsäkring,försäkring,kontraheringsplikt,kontraheringstvång,AB 04,entreprenad,entreprenören,beställaren,riskfördelning,allriskförsäkring,ansvarsförsäkring.},
  language     = {swe},
  note         = {Student Paper},
  title        = {Försäkringsplikt enligt AB 04},
  year         = {2018},
}