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Ett Europa – en familjerätt? - En studie av möjligheten till en harmonisering av familjerätten inom Europeiska Unionen med Europakonventionen som grund

Bauer, Sofia LU (2018) JURM02 20181
Department of Law
Faculty of Law
Abstract (Swedish)
En mänsklig rättighet beskrivs som en så fundamental rättighet att varje enskild anses kunna hävda den gentemot det allmänna. Trots det ansågs det inte finnas något behov av ett mellanstatligt skydd innan andra världskriget. Då ansåg man att det var varje stats ensak hur de behandlade sina medborgare men efter andra världskriget aktualiserades nya krav. Detta ledde till att Europarådet bildades 1949 och en första version av Europakonventionen kom 1950 vilken trädde i kraft 1953. Efter Europakonventionens ikraftträdande har flertalet förändringar skett inom Europa, där bildandet av den Europeiska Unionen varit den mest framträdande tätt följd av öppnandet av Östeuropa.

Idag ingår Europakonventionen i unionsrätten som en del av unionens... (More)
En mänsklig rättighet beskrivs som en så fundamental rättighet att varje enskild anses kunna hävda den gentemot det allmänna. Trots det ansågs det inte finnas något behov av ett mellanstatligt skydd innan andra världskriget. Då ansåg man att det var varje stats ensak hur de behandlade sina medborgare men efter andra världskriget aktualiserades nya krav. Detta ledde till att Europarådet bildades 1949 och en första version av Europakonventionen kom 1950 vilken trädde i kraft 1953. Efter Europakonventionens ikraftträdande har flertalet förändringar skett inom Europa, där bildandet av den Europeiska Unionen varit den mest framträdande tätt följd av öppnandet av Östeuropa.

Idag ingår Europakonventionen i unionsrätten som en del av unionens grundläggande rättsprinciper. Trots detta finns inget externt krav på att unionen lever upp till rättigheterna i konventionen utan det ansvaret ligger på varje medlemsstat och först den dag unionen är part till konventionen har de en skyldighet att upprätthålla denna i sitt rättsutövande. Detta väcker ett antal intressanta frågor om hur det egentliga skyddet upprätthålls inom unionen samt hur en eventuell harmonisering av den familjerättsliga lagstiftningen skulle kunna genomföras. Om den alls kan genomföras i dagsläget. Flertalet röster höjs för att medlemsstaternas nationella lagstiftning bör närma sig varandra inom detta område vilket gör det till en aktuell och framåtblickande frågeställning.

Uppsatsen har med denna bakgrund valt att undersöka om det finns en möjlighet till harmonisering av den familjerättsliga lagstiftningen inom unionen med Europakonventionen som utgångspunkt. Uppsatsen skall utgå från det minimiskydd som anges i de familjerättsliga artiklarna i Europakonvention vilka exemplifieras genom Europadomstolens avgöranden. Fokus kommer av naturliga skäl ligga på de artiklar i konventionen som behandlar familjen och de familjerättsliga frågorna. En harmonisering av familjerätten ställs i relation till såväl den nationella regleringens mål och syfte som unionens. Även de inom Europarådet och Europadomstolen rådande värderingarna iakttas.

Inom unionen råder det en avancerad normhierarkisk struktur mellan såväl den nationella regleringen som den unions- och europarättsliga regleringen. Sammanfattningsvis så står den unionsrättsliga regleringen över medlemsstaternas nationella reglering och avgöranden. Tanken är dock att Europadomstolen skall verka sida vid sida med EU-domstolen och komplettera varandra utan att inkräkta på varandras befogenheter och områden. I realiteten blir detta svårt om de båda domstolarna skall handha liknande mål trots deras prioriteringar är vitt skilda. Europadomstolen har som högsta prioritet de mänskliga rättigheterna medan EU-domstolen prioriterar unionens syfte och mål samt dess inre marknad. Förutom detta råder det i dagsläget en stor diskrepans mellan den familjerättsliga lagstiftningen inom unionen.

Av dessa ovan nämnda skäl kommer uppsatsen fram till att det i dagsläget inte skulle gagna de enskilda medlemsländerna inom unionen om den familjerättsliga lagstiftningen harmoniserades. Detta då unionen inte vill underkasta sig någon extern kontroll samtidigt som de familjerättsliga rättigheterna troligen kommer, vid en konflikt, få stå tillbaka för unionens egna prioriteringar. (Less)
Abstract
A human right is described as such a fundamental right that every individual is considered to be able to claim it against the public. Before the Second World War the general opinion was that there was no need for an intergovernmental protection. At this time, it was considered to be every states responsibility how they treated there citizens, but after the Second World War new demands were made. This lead to the creation of the Council of Europe in 1949 and the outcome of a first version of the European Convention on Human Rights in 1950 which entered into force in 1953.

After the convention entered into force a lot of changes has occurred in Europe where the formation of the European Union and the opening of the Eastern Europe has been... (More)
A human right is described as such a fundamental right that every individual is considered to be able to claim it against the public. Before the Second World War the general opinion was that there was no need for an intergovernmental protection. At this time, it was considered to be every states responsibility how they treated there citizens, but after the Second World War new demands were made. This lead to the creation of the Council of Europe in 1949 and the outcome of a first version of the European Convention on Human Rights in 1950 which entered into force in 1953.

After the convention entered into force a lot of changes has occurred in Europe where the formation of the European Union and the opening of the Eastern Europe has been the most prominent. Today the convention is a part of union law as fundamental general principles. Nevertheless, there is no external control on how the European Union live up to the fundamental rights of the convention, but there is a requirement of every member state to give the rights full acknowledgment. Not until the European Union is a part of the convention on its own there is an obligation to give the convention full enforcement.

This construction raises a number of interesting questions about how the true protection is maintained within the union and how and if a harmonization of family law could be implemented and if this is a possibility at the present time. Today there is a number of voices raised on the matter of member states national legislation regarding family law and the ambition that these should approach each other. This makes the area an up-to-date and forward-looking issue. Based on this background, the aim of the paper has been to investigate whether there is a possibility of harmonizing family law within the union with the convention as a starting point and a common ground. This approach should be based on the minimum protection set out in the articles concerning family law in the convention, which are exemplified by the decisions of the European court of human rights. The focus will naturally be on articles in the convention that deals with family and family law.

Harmonization of family law is set in relation to both the objective and purpose of national law as well as union law. These two systems are linked to each other and within the union there is an advanced norm hierarchical structure between national regulation in relations to union law. As a general the union law tops national law. But the member states of the union has split obligations and even if they are obligated to act according to union law, they are also obligated to act according to the convention. Within the union are the official standing point that the European Court of Justice should act side by side with the European Court of Human Rights and complement each other without compromising each other’s powers and areas. In reality is this more difficult due to the fact that the priorities are widely different. Within the union is the priority always the union and its goals and ambitions while the convention of human rights has a more overall purpose to protect the human rights. This leads to a bit of a conflict in the member states who has to joggle these to ambition nationally, while protecting there own national inheritance and culture. Therefore, thereis a difficulty in the harmonization due to different priorities. (Less)
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author
Bauer, Sofia LU
supervisor
organization
course
JURM02 20181
year
type
H3 - Professional qualifications (4 Years - )
subject
keywords
familjerätt
language
Swedish
id
8956581
date added to LUP
2018-09-12 14:20:04
date last changed
2018-09-12 14:20:04
@misc{8956581,
  abstract     = {A human right is described as such a fundamental right that every individual is considered to be able to claim it against the public. Before the Second World War the general opinion was that there was no need for an intergovernmental protection. At this time, it was considered to be every states responsibility how they treated there citizens, but after the Second World War new demands were made. This lead to the creation of the Council of Europe in 1949 and the outcome of a first version of the European Convention on Human Rights in 1950 which entered into force in 1953.

After the convention entered into force a lot of changes has occurred in Europe where the formation of the European Union and the opening of the Eastern Europe has been the most prominent. Today the convention is a part of union law as fundamental general principles. Nevertheless, there is no external control on how the European Union live up to the fundamental rights of the convention, but there is a requirement of every member state to give the rights full acknowledgment. Not until the European Union is a part of the convention on its own there is an obligation to give the convention full enforcement.

This construction raises a number of interesting questions about how the true protection is maintained within the union and how and if a harmonization of family law could be implemented and if this is a possibility at the present time. Today there is a number of voices raised on the matter of member states national legislation regarding family law and the ambition that these should approach each other. This makes the area an up-to-date and forward-looking issue. Based on this background, the aim of the paper has been to investigate whether there is a possibility of harmonizing family law within the union with the convention as a starting point and a common ground. This approach should be based on the minimum protection set out in the articles concerning family law in the convention, which are exemplified by the decisions of the European court of human rights. The focus will naturally be on articles in the convention that deals with family and family law.

Harmonization of family law is set in relation to both the objective and purpose of national law as well as union law. These two systems are linked to each other and within the union there is an advanced norm hierarchical structure between national regulation in relations to union law. As a general the union law tops national law. But the member states of the union has split obligations and even if they are obligated to act according to union law, they are also obligated to act according to the convention. Within the union are the official standing point that the European Court of Justice should act side by side with the European Court of Human Rights and complement each other without compromising each other’s powers and areas. In reality is this more difficult due to the fact that the priorities are widely different. Within the union is the priority always the union and its goals and ambitions while the convention of human rights has a more overall purpose to protect the human rights. This leads to a bit of a conflict in the member states who has to joggle these to ambition nationally, while protecting there own national inheritance and culture. Therefore, thereis a difficulty in the harmonization due to different priorities.},
  author       = {Bauer, Sofia},
  keyword      = {familjerätt},
  language     = {swe},
  note         = {Student Paper},
  title        = {Ett Europa – en familjerätt? - En studie av möjligheten till en harmonisering av familjerätten inom Europeiska Unionen med Europakonventionen som grund},
  year         = {2018},
}