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All lek sker på egen risk! – Om barns skadeståndsansvar i svensk rätt

Rix, Nea LU (2018) LAGF03 20182
Department of Law
Faculty of Law
Abstract (Swedish)
Alla är vi barn i början. Med stigande ålder utvecklas förmågan att skilja på vad som är rätt och fel. Unga personer har begränsade möjligheter att bedöma risker och överblicka konsekvenserna av olika beslut. Likväl kan skadeståndsskyldighet bli aktuellt redan i ett tidigt skede av livet. Det civilrättsliga regelverket har en betydligt tuffare inställning till barns ansvar än vad straffrätten har. När personer under 15 år skadar egendom genom brott blir diskrepansen särskilt tydlig. Trots att dessa barn anses för unga för att tilldelas straff i en brottmålsprocess, riskerar de att bli personligt betalningsansvariga för omfattande skadeståndskrav.

Uppsatsens återkommande tema är hur synen på barn och deras förmåga varierar inom... (More)
Alla är vi barn i början. Med stigande ålder utvecklas förmågan att skilja på vad som är rätt och fel. Unga personer har begränsade möjligheter att bedöma risker och överblicka konsekvenserna av olika beslut. Likväl kan skadeståndsskyldighet bli aktuellt redan i ett tidigt skede av livet. Det civilrättsliga regelverket har en betydligt tuffare inställning till barns ansvar än vad straffrätten har. När personer under 15 år skadar egendom genom brott blir diskrepansen särskilt tydlig. Trots att dessa barn anses för unga för att tilldelas straff i en brottmålsprocess, riskerar de att bli personligt betalningsansvariga för omfattande skadeståndskrav.

Uppsatsens återkommande tema är hur synen på barn och deras förmåga varierar inom rättsvetenskapen. Sedan lång tid tillbaka har unga personer mestadels setts som objekt för vuxnas omsorger. Exempel på ett sådant synsätt framgår av att civilrättslig myndighet inträder vid 18 års ålder. Under senare delen av 1900-talet har bilden av barn som självständiga subjekt vuxit fram. Betydelsen av deras rättigheter uppmärksammas allt oftare i lagstiftningssammanhang. Frågan är hur en rimlig avvägning ska göras mellan dessa principiellt olika förhållningssätt.

Det kan konstateras att personer under 15 år intar en särställning inom såväl skadeståndsrätten som straffrätten. För minderåriga som orsakar skada finns möjlighet att jämka ner ersättningsskyldigheten till ett skäligt belopp. Barn som begår brott kan inte dömas till straffrättslig påföljd. Dock kvarstår problematiken att unga personer kan ådra sig stora skulder hänförliga till skadestånd. Förslagsvis borde en åldersgräns införas i skadeståndsrättsliga sammanhang, för att färre barn ska växa upp till ett liv präglat av ekonomisk utsatthet. (Less)
Abstract
We all start out as children. The ability to distinguish between what is right and wrong develops with increasing age. Young people have a limited capability to assess risks and foresee the consequences of their decisions. Despite this, liability for damages can become a matter at an early stage of life. The regulations of civil law have a much tougher approach to children’s responsibility than the criminal law has. When people under 15 years of age damage property through crime, the discrepancy becomes particularly clear. Although these children are considered too young to be assigned penalties in criminal proceedings, they risk becoming personally liable for substantial compensation claims.

A recurring theme of this essay is how the... (More)
We all start out as children. The ability to distinguish between what is right and wrong develops with increasing age. Young people have a limited capability to assess risks and foresee the consequences of their decisions. Despite this, liability for damages can become a matter at an early stage of life. The regulations of civil law have a much tougher approach to children’s responsibility than the criminal law has. When people under 15 years of age damage property through crime, the discrepancy becomes particularly clear. Although these children are considered too young to be assigned penalties in criminal proceedings, they risk becoming personally liable for substantial compensation claims.

A recurring theme of this essay is how the viewpoints regarding children and their abilities vary in legal contexts. For a long time, young people have mostly been seen as objects of adult care. Example of such an approach is the fact that the age of majority is set at 18. In the latter part of the 20th century, the image of children as independent subjects has emerged. The importance of their rights is increasingly being acknowledged in legislative matters. It is difficult to ensure a reasonable balance between these fundamentally different approaches.

The conclusion is that people under 15 years of age assume a special position within both the law on damages and the criminal law. For minors who cause injuries, the liability to compensate can be adjusted to a fair amount. Children who commit crimes cannot be sentenced to criminal penalties. However, the problem remains that young people can incur large debts attributable to damages. An age limit is suggested for the legal responsibility to compensate, in order for fewer children to grow up into an adult life with economic uncertainty. (Less)
Please use this url to cite or link to this publication:
author
Rix, Nea LU
supervisor
organization
course
LAGF03 20182
year
type
M2 - Bachelor Degree
subject
keywords
skadeståndsrätt, straffrätt, rättsvetenskap, barnrätt, rättshandlingsförmåga, jämkning, ersättningsansvar, straffbarhetsålder, barnkonventionen, särbehandling
language
Swedish
id
8965716
date added to LUP
2019-03-17 14:21:18
date last changed
2019-03-17 14:21:18
@misc{8965716,
  abstract     = {We all start out as children. The ability to distinguish between what is right and wrong develops with increasing age. Young people have a limited capability to assess risks and foresee the consequences of their decisions. Despite this, liability for damages can become a matter at an early stage of life. The regulations of civil law have a much tougher approach to children’s responsibility than the criminal law has. When people under 15 years of age damage property through crime, the discrepancy becomes particularly clear. Although these children are considered too young to be assigned penalties in criminal proceedings, they risk becoming personally liable for substantial compensation claims. 

A recurring theme of this essay is how the viewpoints regarding children and their abilities vary in legal contexts. For a long time, young people have mostly been seen as objects of adult care. Example of such an approach is the fact that the age of majority is set at 18. In the latter part of the 20th century, the image of children as independent subjects has emerged. The importance of their rights is increasingly being acknowledged in legislative matters. It is difficult to ensure a reasonable balance between these fundamentally different approaches.

The conclusion is that people under 15 years of age assume a special position within both the law on damages and the criminal law. For minors who cause injuries, the liability to compensate can be adjusted to a fair amount. Children who commit crimes cannot be sentenced to criminal penalties. However, the problem remains that young people can incur large debts attributable to damages. An age limit is suggested for the legal responsibility to compensate, in order for fewer children to grow up into an adult life with economic uncertainty.},
  author       = {Rix, Nea},
  keyword      = {skadeståndsrätt,straffrätt,rättsvetenskap,barnrätt,rättshandlingsförmåga,jämkning,ersättningsansvar,straffbarhetsålder,barnkonventionen,särbehandling},
  language     = {swe},
  note         = {Student Paper},
  title        = {All lek sker på egen risk! – Om barns skadeståndsansvar i svensk rätt},
  year         = {2018},
}