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Testamentariska gåvor från patienter till vårdare

Aronsson, Fanny LU (2019) JURM02 20191
Department of Law
Faculty of Law
Abstract (Swedish)
Vårdare kan utnyttja patienters underlägsna position och förmå äldre och sjuka personer att upprätta testamenten till deras fördel. Med hjälp av en rättsdogmatisk metod, undersöker denna uppsats inledningsvis hur svensk successionsrätt respektive straffrätt förhåller sig till sådana testamentariska förordnanden. På grund av den många gånger överväldigande bevisbördan, är det svårt för de legala arvingarna att klandra ett sådant testamente med utgångspunkt i 13 kap. 3 § ÄB. Vårdaren kan i majoriteten av fallen istället dömas för mutbrott, varpå den ärvda egendomen förverkas av staten. Att kvarlåtenskapen tillfaller staten istället för de legala arvingarna kan kritiseras. Eftersom testamentet strider mot svensk mutbrottslagstiftning borde... (More)
Vårdare kan utnyttja patienters underlägsna position och förmå äldre och sjuka personer att upprätta testamenten till deras fördel. Med hjälp av en rättsdogmatisk metod, undersöker denna uppsats inledningsvis hur svensk successionsrätt respektive straffrätt förhåller sig till sådana testamentariska förordnanden. På grund av den många gånger överväldigande bevisbördan, är det svårt för de legala arvingarna att klandra ett sådant testamente med utgångspunkt i 13 kap. 3 § ÄB. Vårdaren kan i majoriteten av fallen istället dömas för mutbrott, varpå den ärvda egendomen förverkas av staten. Att kvarlåtenskapen tillfaller staten istället för de legala arvingarna kan kritiseras. Eftersom testamentet strider mot svensk mutbrottslagstiftning borde rättshandlingen betraktas som ogiltig och arvet istället fördelas i enlighet med den legala arvsordningen.

Med hjälp av en komparativ metod, undersöker denna uppsats även den rättsliga reglering som Frankrike har utvecklat med anledning av testamentariska gåvor från patienter till vårdare. Art. 909 i den franska civilkoden förbjuder viss vårdpersonal, som behandlade en person under dennes sista sjukdom, att ta emot testamentariska gåvor som gjordes till deras fördel under samma sjukdomstid. Bestämmelsen är å ena sidan robust och undantagslös. Bestämmelsen har å andra sidan ett begränsat tillämpningsområde, med tanke på att testamentariska gåvor till bland annat sjuksköterskor inte omfattas av förbudet.

Uppsatsen undersöker slutligen även hur rättssäker den svenska regleringen kan sägas vara. Mutbrottslagstiftningen uppställer en mycket stor inskränkning i patienters testationsfrihet. Två separata regelverk och en inkonsekvent rättstillämpning gör det även svårt att förutse när en patient faktiskt tillåts testamentera egendom till en vårdare. Den svenska lagstiftaren borde inspireras av den franska förbudsbestämmelsen och införa en betydligt tydligare och transparent inskränkning av patienters testationsfrihet. (Less)
Abstract
Health professionals may take advantage of a patient’s inferior position and influence him or her to make a will in favor of the caretaker. By using a legal dogmatic method, this essay initially examines the relationship between such testamentary dispositions and Swedish inheritance and criminal law. Due to an often overwhelming evidentiary burden, it is very difficult for an heir to contest such a will by claiming undue influence. The caretaker may although be convicted of bribery, upon which the inherited property will be confiscated by the state. The property of the deceased should although not accrue to the state. Considering the conflict between such a will and the Swedish law on bribery, the will should be considered invalid and the... (More)
Health professionals may take advantage of a patient’s inferior position and influence him or her to make a will in favor of the caretaker. By using a legal dogmatic method, this essay initially examines the relationship between such testamentary dispositions and Swedish inheritance and criminal law. Due to an often overwhelming evidentiary burden, it is very difficult for an heir to contest such a will by claiming undue influence. The caretaker may although be convicted of bribery, upon which the inherited property will be confiscated by the state. The property of the deceased should although not accrue to the state. Considering the conflict between such a will and the Swedish law on bribery, the will should be considered invalid and the inheritance distributed in accordance with the rules of intestate succession.

By using a comparative method, this essay also examines how the same problem is resolved within the French legal system. Article 909 of the French Civil Code prohibits certain health professionals, who have treated a person during the disease of which he dies, to benefit from the testamentary dispositions which he made in their favor during the course of that illness. The French regulation is on one hand robust and without any exceptions. It's area of application is on the other hand very limited; testamentary dispositions made in favor of nurses, for an example, is not prohibited.

Lastly, this essay also examines the foreseeability and fairness of the Swedish regulation. Patients’ testamentary freedom is, in this situation, largely restricted by the law on bribery. Two different areas of legislation and an inconsistent application of law also makes it difficult to predict under which circumstances a caretaker may benefit from a testamentary disposition of a former patient. The Swedish legislature should therefore find inspiration in the French Civil Code and pass a far more unambiguous restriction of patients’ testamentary freedom. (Less)
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author
Aronsson, Fanny LU
supervisor
organization
alternative title
Testamentary dispositions from patients to health professionals
course
JURM02 20191
year
type
H3 - Professional qualifications (4 Years - )
subject
keywords
Familjerätt, Testamentsrätt, Straffrätt, Komparativ rätt, Rättssäkerhet, Otillbörlig påverkan, Mutbrott, Förverkande, Patienter, Vårdare
language
Swedish
id
8976618
date added to LUP
2019-06-10 15:30:10
date last changed
2019-06-10 15:30:10
@misc{8976618,
  abstract     = {Health professionals may take advantage of a patient’s inferior position and influence him or her to make a will in favor of the caretaker. By using a legal dogmatic method, this essay initially examines the relationship between such testamentary dispositions and Swedish inheritance and criminal law. Due to an often overwhelming evidentiary burden, it is very difficult for an heir to contest such a will by claiming undue influence. The caretaker may although be convicted of bribery, upon which the inherited property will be confiscated by the state. The property of the deceased should although not accrue to the state. Considering the conflict between such a will and the Swedish law on bribery, the will should be considered invalid and the inheritance distributed in accordance with the rules of intestate succession. 

By using a comparative method, this essay also examines how the same problem is resolved within the French legal system. Article 909 of the French Civil Code prohibits certain health professionals, who have treated a person during the disease of which he dies, to benefit from the testamentary dispositions which he made in their favor during the course of that illness. The French regulation is on one hand robust and without any exceptions. It's area of application is on the other hand very limited; testamentary dispositions made in favor of nurses, for an example, is not prohibited. 

Lastly, this essay also examines the foreseeability and fairness of the Swedish regulation. Patients’ testamentary freedom is, in this situation, largely restricted by the law on bribery. Two different areas of legislation and an inconsistent application of law also makes it difficult to predict under which circumstances a caretaker may benefit from a testamentary disposition of a former patient. The Swedish legislature should therefore find inspiration in the French Civil Code and pass a far more unambiguous restriction of patients’ testamentary freedom.},
  author       = {Aronsson, Fanny},
  keyword      = {Familjerätt,Testamentsrätt,Straffrätt,Komparativ rätt,Rättssäkerhet,Otillbörlig påverkan,Mutbrott,Förverkande,Patienter,Vårdare},
  language     = {swe},
  note         = {Student Paper},
  title        = {Testamentariska gåvor från patienter till vårdare},
  year         = {2019},
}