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Condictio indebiti - dess vaghet, dess svaghet - En kritisk analys av utvecklingen av condictio indebiti ur rättssäkerhetssynpunkt

Ördén, Agnes LU (2019) JURM02 20191
Faculty of Law
Department of Law
Abstract (Swedish)
Condictio indebiti är ett civilrättsligt institut som utformats genom praxis. När en felaktig betalning görs är huvudregeln att beloppet ska återbetalas. Det finns dock vissa omständigheter som gör att mottagaren kan få behålla beloppet; de främsta undantagen är ett mottagande i god tro och vidare ett i fortsatt god tro inrättande efter betalningen.
Den här uppsatsen har undersökt hur utvecklingen har sett ut, från tidig historia till de senaste rättsfallen som Högsta domstolen har dömt i.
Arbetet har huvudsakligen utgått ifrån ett rättssäkerhetsperspektiv. De frågor som har ämnats besvara är bland annat under vilka omständigheter mottagaren har fått behålla beloppet i praxis, om inrättandekravet används som ett faktiskt krav på... (More)
Condictio indebiti är ett civilrättsligt institut som utformats genom praxis. När en felaktig betalning görs är huvudregeln att beloppet ska återbetalas. Det finns dock vissa omständigheter som gör att mottagaren kan få behålla beloppet; de främsta undantagen är ett mottagande i god tro och vidare ett i fortsatt god tro inrättande efter betalningen.
Den här uppsatsen har undersökt hur utvecklingen har sett ut, från tidig historia till de senaste rättsfallen som Högsta domstolen har dömt i.
Arbetet har huvudsakligen utgått ifrån ett rättssäkerhetsperspektiv. De frågor som har ämnats besvara är bland annat under vilka omständigheter mottagaren har fått behålla beloppet i praxis, om inrättandekravet används som ett faktiskt krav på inrättande och slutligen, om institutet kan behöva omformas. En rättsfallsstudie av de fyra nyaste rättsfallen, vägd mot den historiska bakgrunden och vad som i litteraturen och praxis uppställs som principerna för condictio indebiti har använts för att besvara frågeställningarna.
Vad som slutligen blivit resultatet av denna undersökning är att det generellt tycks röra sig om godtyckliga bedömningar i fall om condictio indebiti. Fall där mottagaren fått behålla beloppet har inga specifika utslagsgivande faktorer som inte föreligger i andra fall. Inrättandekravet tycks vidare inte heller användas vid bedömningen i en del fall, speciellt i domar där ena parten är arbetstagare. Om institutet kräver ett omformande är en fråga som inte bara har ett rätt svar. Det tycks finnas en genomgående trend att vilja utvidga och använda principerna för condictio indebiti även i fall som inte helt faller in under institutet. Det, i kombination med fall där privatpersoner inte återfår sin misstagsbetalning gör att det ur rättssäkerhetsperspektiv kan finnas argument för att göra om institutet, exempelvis med olika bedömningsprinciper för kommersiella förhållanden som i förhållanden med konsumenter eller privatpersoner. (Less)
Abstract
Condictio indebiti is an institute within private law which is and has been formed through case law. When a wrongful payment is made, the general rule is to pay back that sum. However, there are certain circumstances that allow the receiver of the payment to keep that amount of money. These exceptions are mainly a reception in good faith, bona fides, and then in continuance of good faith, also an adaptation of the sum.
This essay has investigated what the development of condictio indebiti looks like, from early history up until the latest case law published by the Supreme Court of Sweden. The essay has primarily utilized a legal security perspective in the analysis. The questions that the thesis has been focused on are under which... (More)
Condictio indebiti is an institute within private law which is and has been formed through case law. When a wrongful payment is made, the general rule is to pay back that sum. However, there are certain circumstances that allow the receiver of the payment to keep that amount of money. These exceptions are mainly a reception in good faith, bona fides, and then in continuance of good faith, also an adaptation of the sum.
This essay has investigated what the development of condictio indebiti looks like, from early history up until the latest case law published by the Supreme Court of Sweden. The essay has primarily utilized a legal security perspective in the analysis. The questions that the thesis has been focused on are under which circumstances the recipient has been allowed to keep the sum, if the requirement of adaptation is used accordingly with actual adaptation and finally, if the institute itself needs to be remodeled. A case law study of the four newest cases, weighted against the historical background as well as what the literature and case law present as the principles of condictio indebiti has been used to answer the questions in the thesis.
Consequently, what the essay has found to be the result of the review is that there seems to be arbitrary judgements in cases of condictio indebiti. Cases where the receiver got to keep the payment have no specific factors leaning towards keeping instead of refunding the payer. The requirement of adaptation does furthermore not seem to be used in some cases, especially in those where one part is an employed person. If the institute needs a remodeling is a question that does not have one correct answer. There seems to be a general trend in case law where the court wants to expand the use of the principles of condictio indebiti, even in cases that do not fall under the institute. This, in combination with cases where private individuals are not reimbursed for their wrongful payments makes it arguable from a point of rule of law and security of person that condictio indebiti needs to be reevaluated and remodeled, with for example different principles for judgement in commercial cases and consumer or private individual relations. (Less)
Please use this url to cite or link to this publication:
author
Ördén, Agnes LU
supervisor
organization
alternative title
Condictio indebiti – its vagueness, its weakness - A critical analysis of the development of condictio indebiti from a legal security perspective
course
JURM02 20191
year
type
H3 - Professional qualifications (4 Years - )
subject
keywords
Civilrätt, condictio indebiti, avtalsrätt, private law, rättssäkerhet, legal security, tillitsprincipen, misstagsbetalning
language
Swedish
id
8976639
date added to LUP
2019-06-11 17:32:19
date last changed
2019-06-11 17:32:19
@misc{8976639,
  abstract     = {Condictio indebiti is an institute within private law which is and has been formed through case law. When a wrongful payment is made, the general rule is to pay back that sum. However, there are certain circumstances that allow the receiver of the payment to keep that amount of money. These exceptions are mainly a reception in good faith, bona fides, and then in continuance of good faith, also an adaptation of the sum.
This essay has investigated what the development of condictio indebiti looks like, from early history up until the latest case law published by the Supreme Court of Sweden. The essay has primarily utilized a legal security perspective in the analysis. The questions that the thesis has been focused on are under which circumstances the recipient has been allowed to keep the sum, if the requirement of adaptation is used accordingly with actual adaptation and finally, if the institute itself needs to be remodeled. A case law study of the four newest cases, weighted against the historical background as well as what the literature and case law present as the principles of condictio indebiti has been used to answer the questions in the thesis.
Consequently, what the essay has found to be the result of the review is that there seems to be arbitrary judgements in cases of condictio indebiti. Cases where the receiver got to keep the payment have no specific factors leaning towards keeping instead of refunding the payer. The requirement of adaptation does furthermore not seem to be used in some cases, especially in those where one part is an employed person. If the institute needs a remodeling is a question that does not have one correct answer. There seems to be a general trend in case law where the court wants to expand the use of the principles of condictio indebiti, even in cases that do not fall under the institute. This, in combination with cases where private individuals are not reimbursed for their wrongful payments makes it arguable from a point of rule of law and security of person that condictio indebiti needs to be reevaluated and remodeled, with for example different principles for judgement in commercial cases and consumer or private individual relations.},
  author       = {Ördén, Agnes},
  keyword      = {Civilrätt,condictio indebiti,avtalsrätt,private law,rättssäkerhet,legal security,tillitsprincipen,misstagsbetalning},
  language     = {swe},
  note         = {Student Paper},
  title        = {Condictio indebiti - dess vaghet, dess svaghet - En kritisk analys av utvecklingen av condictio indebiti ur rättssäkerhetssynpunkt},
  year         = {2019},
}