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Ofrivillig graviditet - slarvigt eller oundvikligt? - Om tillverkare av digitala preventivmedels ansvar för ofrivilliga graviditeter

Fazlic, Emma LU (2019) JURM02 20191
Department of Law
Faculty of Law
Abstract
In 2018, a digital contraceptive app came to attention in Swedish media, due to claims that the app was inefficient as a contraceptive and that it had led to an increased number of unintended pregnancies. The main purpose of digital contraceptives is to prevent pregnancies by measuring safe periods during the user’s menstruation cycle. Generally, the user has been blamed for negligent use of the contraceptive app if the user has become unintentionally pregnant, but if the manufacturer promises protection and fails to provide it, should the consumer bear full responsibility?

The purpose of this thesis is to examine whether an unintended pregnancy can constitute a damage, if digital contraceptives can be considered as products or... (More)
In 2018, a digital contraceptive app came to attention in Swedish media, due to claims that the app was inefficient as a contraceptive and that it had led to an increased number of unintended pregnancies. The main purpose of digital contraceptives is to prevent pregnancies by measuring safe periods during the user’s menstruation cycle. Generally, the user has been blamed for negligent use of the contraceptive app if the user has become unintentionally pregnant, but if the manufacturer promises protection and fails to provide it, should the consumer bear full responsibility?

The purpose of this thesis is to examine whether an unintended pregnancy can constitute a damage, if digital contraceptives can be considered as products or pharmaceuticals and if manufacturers of digital contraceptives are liable for compensation to users who have become unintentionally pregnant. By using the legal dogmatic method, the thesis examines three parallel frameworks which regulate liability and compensation in different situations, namely the Product Liability Act, the Tort Liability Act and the Swedish Pharmaceutical Insurance.

Users who become unintentionally pregnant due to the inefficiency of digital contraceptives may have suffered both personal injury and pure economic loss. An unintended pregnancy constitutes a personal injury if it can be considered to be a psychological or physical defect on the part of the woman and the defect has to have shown a medically detectable effect. Regarding compensation for pure economic losses, the child has to have been born and the mother has to have suffered financial losses because of the birth for financial compensation to be possible.

This thesis finds that manufacturers of digital contraceptives may be liable for damages according to the Product Liability Act and the Tort Liability Act, but not according to the Swedish Pharmaceutical Insurance. The insurance does not encompass digital contraceptives because they cannot be considered as pharmaceuticals. An injured party can claim strict liability or negligence by the manufacturer. However, the injured party must bear the economic risk of seeking compensation. Due to the lack of case law regarding product liability and digital contraceptives, it is possible that a different assessment could be made in practice. In theory, however, manufacturers are liable for unintended pregnancies caused by inefficient digital contraceptives. (Less)
Abstract (Swedish)
Under 2018 uppmärksammades ett digitalt preventivmedel i svenska medier på grund av påståenden om att preventivmedlet varit ineffektivt och resulterat många ofrivilliga graviditeter. De digitala preventivmedlens funktion är att förhindra graviditeter genom att signalera säkra perioder i användarens menstruationscykel. Generellt har ansvaret för ofrivilliga graviditeter ofta legat på användaren som förutsätts ha slarvat med användningen, men om preventivmedlets tillverkare utlovar ett skydd och inte lyckas upprätthålla det, ska konsumenten bära hela ansvaret?

Syftet med denna uppsats är att utreda huruvida en ofrivillig graviditet kan utgöra en skada i ersättningsrättslig mening, om digitala preventivmedel kan anses utgöra produkter... (More)
Under 2018 uppmärksammades ett digitalt preventivmedel i svenska medier på grund av påståenden om att preventivmedlet varit ineffektivt och resulterat många ofrivilliga graviditeter. De digitala preventivmedlens funktion är att förhindra graviditeter genom att signalera säkra perioder i användarens menstruationscykel. Generellt har ansvaret för ofrivilliga graviditeter ofta legat på användaren som förutsätts ha slarvat med användningen, men om preventivmedlets tillverkare utlovar ett skydd och inte lyckas upprätthålla det, ska konsumenten bära hela ansvaret?

Syftet med denna uppsats är att utreda huruvida en ofrivillig graviditet kan utgöra en skada i ersättningsrättslig mening, om digitala preventivmedel kan anses utgöra produkter eller läkemedel samt om tillverkare av digitala preventivmedel har ett ersättningsrättsligt ansvar gentemot användare som blivit ofrivilligt gravida vid användningen av preventivmedlet. Genom användning av den rättsdogmatiska metoden har uppsatsen utgått från tre parallella regelverk som reglerar ersättning i olika situationer, nämligen PAL, SkL och LFF.

Användare som blir ofrivilligt gravida på grund av digitala preventivmedels ineffektivitet kan ha lidit både person- och ren förmögenhetsskada. En ofrivillig graviditet utgör en personskada om den, för kvinnan, inneburit ett psykiskt eller fysiskt defekttillstånd med en medicinskt påvisbar effekt. Avseende ersättning för rena förmögenhetsskador krävs det att barnet föds med liv och att modern lidit ren ekonomisk förlust på grund av barnets födsel.

Slutsatsen är att tillverkare av digitala preventivmedel kan bli ersättningsskyldiga enligt PAL och SkL för ofrivilliga graviditeter, men inte enligt LFF. Försäkringen omfattar inte digitala preventivmedel, då de inte kan anses utgöra läkemedel. Tillverkare ansvarar både enligt det strikta ansvaret i PAL och culpaansvaret i SkL, men det innebär en viss ekonomisk risk för skadelidande att kräva ersättning. Då det saknas praxis avseende produktansvar för digitala preventivmedel är det möjligt att en annan bedömning skulle göras i praktiken. Rent teoretiskt föreligger dock ett ansvar för tillverkare av digitala preventivmedel då en användare blir ofrivilligt gravid. (Less)
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author
Fazlic, Emma LU
supervisor
organization
alternative title
Unintended pregnancies - sloppy or inevitable? - Manufacturers' liability for unintended pregnancies caused by inefficient digital contraceptives
course
JURM02 20191
year
type
H3 - Professional qualifications (4 Years - )
subject
keywords
Skadeståndsrätt, förmögenhetsrätt, produktansvar, läkemedel, preventivmedel
language
Swedish
id
8976747
date added to LUP
2019-06-18 13:50:43
date last changed
2019-06-18 13:50:43
@misc{8976747,
  abstract     = {In 2018, a digital contraceptive app came to attention in Swedish media, due to claims that the app was inefficient as a contraceptive and that it had led to an increased number of unintended pregnancies. The main purpose of digital contraceptives is to prevent pregnancies by measuring safe periods during the user’s menstruation cycle. Generally, the user has been blamed for negligent use of the contraceptive app if the user has become unintentionally pregnant, but if the manufacturer promises protection and fails to provide it, should the consumer bear full responsibility?

The purpose of this thesis is to examine whether an unintended pregnancy can constitute a damage, if digital contraceptives can be considered as products or pharmaceuticals and if manufacturers of digital contraceptives are liable for compensation to users who have become unintentionally pregnant. By using the legal dogmatic method, the thesis examines three parallel frameworks which regulate liability and compensation in different situations, namely the Product Liability Act, the Tort Liability Act and the Swedish Pharmaceutical Insurance.

Users who become unintentionally pregnant due to the inefficiency of digital contraceptives may have suffered both personal injury and pure economic loss. An unintended pregnancy constitutes a personal injury if it can be considered to be a psychological or physical defect on the part of the woman and the defect has to have shown a medically detectable effect. Regarding compensation for pure economic losses, the child has to have been born and the mother has to have suffered financial losses because of the birth for financial compensation to be possible. 

This thesis finds that manufacturers of digital contraceptives may be liable for damages according to the Product Liability Act and the Tort Liability Act, but not according to the Swedish Pharmaceutical Insurance. The insurance does not encompass digital contraceptives because they cannot be considered as pharmaceuticals. An injured party can claim strict liability or negligence by the manufacturer. However, the injured party must bear the economic risk of seeking compensation. Due to the lack of case law regarding product liability and digital contraceptives, it is possible that a different assessment could be made in practice. In theory, however, manufacturers are liable for unintended pregnancies caused by inefficient digital contraceptives.},
  author       = {Fazlic, Emma},
  keyword      = {Skadeståndsrätt,förmögenhetsrätt,produktansvar,läkemedel,preventivmedel},
  language     = {swe},
  note         = {Student Paper},
  title        = {Ofrivillig graviditet - slarvigt eller oundvikligt? - Om tillverkare av digitala preventivmedels ansvar för ofrivilliga graviditeter},
  year         = {2019},
}