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Prohibition till varje pris? - En analys av den svenska kontrollen av nätdroger

Björklund, Fanny LU (2019) JURM02 20191
Department of Law
Faculty of Law
Abstract (Swedish)
Den svenska narkotikastrafflagen reglerar tillsammans med andra relevanta lagar, exempelvis smugglingslagen, den straffrättsliga kontrollen av narkotika. NSL har sedan införandet 1968 genomgått ändringar, samtliga i straffskärpande riktning. Idag har Sverige en starkt repressiv och hårt kontrollerande lagstiftning beträffande narkotika jämfört med andra europeiska länder.

När nätdroger under 2000-talet gjorde intåg i det svenska samhället uppstod ett behov att kontrollera dessa. Problem med snabb utveckling och möjligheter att förändra molekylsammansättning för att undgå lagföring gav upphov till en utredning om möjligheter till generisk klassificering. Efter att denna utredning visat på stora rättssäkerhetsrisker vid sådan... (More)
Den svenska narkotikastrafflagen reglerar tillsammans med andra relevanta lagar, exempelvis smugglingslagen, den straffrättsliga kontrollen av narkotika. NSL har sedan införandet 1968 genomgått ändringar, samtliga i straffskärpande riktning. Idag har Sverige en starkt repressiv och hårt kontrollerande lagstiftning beträffande narkotika jämfört med andra europeiska länder.

När nätdroger under 2000-talet gjorde intåg i det svenska samhället uppstod ett behov att kontrollera dessa. Problem med snabb utveckling och möjligheter att förändra molekylsammansättning för att undgå lagföring gav upphov till en utredning om möjligheter till generisk klassificering. Efter att denna utredning visat på stora rättssäkerhetsrisker vid sådan klassificering ansågs inte generisk klassificering vara ett alternativ för att kontrollera nätdroger. Istället kontrolleras nätdrogerna genom narkotikalagstiftningen, vilket innebär att en nätdrog måste narkotikaklassificeras för att bli föremål för lagföring, vilket är en tidsmässigt långdragen process. Detta har resulterat i att ett stort antal nätdroger idag hamnar utanför det straffbara området, och därmed blir lagliga.

Genom förstörandelagen har myndigheter sedan 2011 getts möjlighet att förstöra nätdroger som upptäcks vid beslag. Lagen tycks ha marginell effekt på mängden nätdroger som cirkulerar i samhället, och teoretiskt kan den till och med ha motsatt effekt. Dock kan lagen ha en expressiv funktion och genom lagen utpeka försäljning och köp av nätdroger som förkastliga handlingar.

Den stränga lagstiftningen och narkotikahandlingsplaner har blivit ett kontrollverktyg för statsmakten för att utöva social kontroll genom straffhot. Att kontrollen av nätdroger sker på förevarande sätt tycks dels ha en historisk förklaring, dels förklaras av hur narkotikafrågan betraktats i sin helhet. Lagstiftningen tillkom i en tid då Sverige blivit en välfärdsstat baserad på rättigheter och skyldigheter där det inte fanns plats för narkomaner och missbruk. Även synen på alkohol kan präglat detta kontrollbehov. Nykterhetsrörelserna hade stor betydelse för att narkotikafrågan hamnade på den politiska agendan, och narkotikafrågan konstruerades av narkomanvårdskommittén på samma sätt som alkoholfrågan gjorde av nykterhetsrörelserna.

Sverige har, också historiskt, konstruerat missbrukare på ett specifikt sätt vilket resulterat i att det rättsliga och sociala fältet tagit hand om narkotikafrågan. Även om denna bild ändrats på senare år, tycks fortfarande spår av den historiska konstruktionen av missbrukaren återfinnas i bland annat narkotikahandlingsplanerna.

Den snabba utvecklingen av nätdroger som skett de senaste åren och viljan att kontrollera dem genom traditionell narkotikalagstiftning har medfört att rättstillämpningen blivit rättsosäker. Exempel på detta är straffvärdebedömningen av nätdroger i domstol. Ett annat exempel är kontrollen av nätdroger på straffrättslig väg genom brottet vållande till annans död som möjliggjorts genom den så kallade Fentanyldomen.

Den främsta och största utmaningen för statsmakten och lagstiftaren tycks i ljuset av bristande rättssäkerhet vara att upprätthålla narkotika- och straffrättspolitikens legitimitet. Med minskad legitimitet kommer statsmakten rimligtvis uppleva svårigheter att genom kriminalisering styra befolkningens beteende i en avvisande riktning från narkotika. (Less)
Abstract
The Swedish penal law on narcotics (NSL) governs the control of narcotics through criminal law alongside other relevant laws, such as law on penalties for smuggling. NSL has since it came into effect undergone adjustments, all of them in a penalty sharpening direction. Today, Sweden has a repressive and hard-controlling legislation on narcotics in comparison to other European countries.

As drugs bought on the internet during the 21st century made their way into the Swedish society an urgent need to control these drugs occurred. Problems such as quick development amongst these drugs and possibilities to change the molecular structure of them to avoid prosecution resulted in a public investigation on the possibilities of generic... (More)
The Swedish penal law on narcotics (NSL) governs the control of narcotics through criminal law alongside other relevant laws, such as law on penalties for smuggling. NSL has since it came into effect undergone adjustments, all of them in a penalty sharpening direction. Today, Sweden has a repressive and hard-controlling legislation on narcotics in comparison to other European countries.

As drugs bought on the internet during the 21st century made their way into the Swedish society an urgent need to control these drugs occurred. Problems such as quick development amongst these drugs and possibilities to change the molecular structure of them to avoid prosecution resulted in a public investigation on the possibilities of generic classification of narcotics. As the investigation presented great risks with the legal security if such a classification would come into effect, control of drugs bought on the internet through generic classification was not considered an alternative. Instead, these drugs are controlled trough the penal law on narcotics, causing a specific drug to be classified as narcotics by the government to become punishable, which is a longwinded process. Many drugs bought on the internet are, as a result, excluded from blamableness, and are consequently legal.

Through SFS 2011:111 authorities have since 2011 been given the possibility to destroy drugs bought on the internet discovered upon confiscation. The effect of the law on the amount of drugs bought on the internet seems to be marginal, and might even on a theoretical level have the opposite effect. However, the law seems to have an expressive function, by which means that the distribution and purchase of drugs on the internet are trough the law pointed out as reprehensible actions.

The firm legislation and action plans on narcotics have become the state’s tool of control to practice social control on its population through threats of penalty. The current control of drugs bought online seems to partly have its explanation in the Swedish history of drugs, partly in how the discussion on narcotics have been contemplated throughout the years. The legislation was resided in a time when Sweden had recently become a welfare state based on rights and responsibilities, where there were no room for drug addicts and addiction. Also, the contemplation on alcohol might have imprinted this need of control. The temperance movement was amongst the contributing factors for the issue on legislation of narcotics to become a political matter in the 1960ies, and the issue of narcotics was by the government created the same way as the issue on alcohol was by the temperance movement.




Sweden has, also historically, constructed the image of an addict in a specific way, which has made the legal and social field to become responsible for the issue on narcotics. Although this image has been a matter of change during recent years, the historical construction of the addict seems to still exist in current action plans on narcotics.

The rapid development of drugs bought on the internet during recent years and the will to control these through the traditional penal laws on narcotics has come to jeopardize the legal security. One example of this is the penalty assessment in court of drugs bought on the internet. Another example is the recent possibility for the court to control drugs bought on the internet through other crimes such as manslaughter, made possible by a sentence called Fentanyldomen.

A fundamental and great challenge for the state and legislator in the light of a ruptured legal security seems to be to maintain the legitimacy of the drug politics and criminal law. With a reduced legitimacy, the state most probably will struggle to control the behavior of the population in a dismissive direction from narcotics through criminalization. (Less)
Please use this url to cite or link to this publication:
author
Björklund, Fanny LU
supervisor
organization
alternative title
Prohibition at all cost? - An analysis of the Swedish control on drugs bought on the Internet
course
JURM02 20191
year
type
H3 - Professional qualifications (4 Years - )
subject
keywords
straffrätt, criminal law
language
Swedish
id
8976902
date added to LUP
2019-06-17 14:42:46
date last changed
2019-06-17 14:42:46
@misc{8976902,
  abstract     = {The Swedish penal law on narcotics (NSL) governs the control of narcotics through criminal law alongside other relevant laws, such as law on penalties for smuggling. NSL has since it came into effect undergone adjustments, all of them in a penalty sharpening direction. Today, Sweden has a repressive and hard-controlling legislation on narcotics in comparison to other European countries. 

As drugs bought on the internet during the 21st century made their way into the Swedish society an urgent need to control these drugs occurred. Problems such as quick development amongst these drugs and possibilities to change the molecular structure of them to avoid prosecution resulted in a public investigation on the possibilities of generic classification of narcotics. As the investigation presented great risks with the legal security if such a classification would come into effect, control of drugs bought on the internet through generic classification was not considered an alternative. Instead, these drugs are controlled trough the penal law on narcotics, causing a specific drug to be classified as narcotics by the government to become punishable, which is a longwinded process. Many drugs bought on the internet are, as a result, excluded from blamableness, and are consequently legal. 

Through SFS 2011:111 authorities have since 2011 been given the possibility to destroy drugs bought on the internet discovered upon confiscation. The effect of the law on the amount of drugs bought on the internet seems to be marginal, and might even on a theoretical level have the opposite effect. However, the law seems to have an expressive function, by which means that the distribution and purchase of drugs on the internet are trough the law pointed out as reprehensible actions. 

The firm legislation and action plans on narcotics have become the state’s tool of control to practice social control on its population through threats of penalty. The current control of drugs bought online seems to partly have its explanation in the Swedish history of drugs, partly in how the discussion on narcotics have been contemplated throughout the years. The legislation was resided in a time when Sweden had recently become a welfare state based on rights and responsibilities, where there were no room for drug addicts and addiction. Also, the contemplation on alcohol might have imprinted this need of control. The temperance movement was amongst the contributing factors for the issue on legislation of narcotics to become a political matter in the 1960ies, and the issue of narcotics was by the government created the same way as the issue on alcohol was by the temperance movement. 




Sweden has, also historically, constructed the image of an addict in a specific way, which has made the legal and social field to become responsible for the issue on narcotics. Although this image has been a matter of change during recent years, the historical construction of the addict seems to still exist in current action plans on narcotics. 

The rapid development of drugs bought on the internet during recent years and the will to control these through the traditional penal laws on narcotics has come to jeopardize the legal security. One example of this is the penalty assessment in court of drugs bought on the internet. Another example is the recent possibility for the court to control drugs bought on the internet through other crimes such as manslaughter, made possible by a sentence called Fentanyldomen. 

A fundamental and great challenge for the state and legislator in the light of a ruptured legal security seems to be to maintain the legitimacy of the drug politics and criminal law. With a reduced legitimacy, the state most probably will struggle to control the behavior of the population in a dismissive direction from narcotics through criminalization.},
  author       = {Björklund, Fanny},
  keyword      = {straffrätt,criminal law},
  language     = {swe},
  note         = {Student Paper},
  title        = {Prohibition till varje pris? - En analys av den svenska kontrollen av nätdroger},
  year         = {2019},
}