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Föräldraskapet – en rätt för alla? - En queerteoretisk analys av föräldraskapslagstiftningens normativa strukturer

Kristland, Anna LU (2019) JURM02 20191
Department of Law
Faculty of Law
Abstract (Swedish)
Sveriges föräldraskapslagstiftning har undergått omfattande förändringar de senaste åren. Under rättsutvecklingens gång har större hänsyn tagits till variationer i samlevnadsformer och val av familjebildning. Lagstiftaren har strävat efter en mer jämlik lagstiftning; diskriminering mot sexuell läggning och kön får inte ske om det inte är befogat på grund av tungt vägande skäl. Trots strävan efter en mer jämlik lagstiftningen föreligger väsentliga skillnader mellan olikkönade och samkönade makar när de ska bli föräldrar. Olikkönade makar omfattas av en faderskapspresumtion. En motsvarande presumtion finns inte för samkönade makar utan det föräldraskapet måste fastställas genom bekräftelse eller dom. För närvarande är ett lagförslag om en... (More)
Sveriges föräldraskapslagstiftning har undergått omfattande förändringar de senaste åren. Under rättsutvecklingens gång har större hänsyn tagits till variationer i samlevnadsformer och val av familjebildning. Lagstiftaren har strävat efter en mer jämlik lagstiftning; diskriminering mot sexuell läggning och kön får inte ske om det inte är befogat på grund av tungt vägande skäl. Trots strävan efter en mer jämlik lagstiftningen föreligger väsentliga skillnader mellan olikkönade och samkönade makar när de ska bli föräldrar. Olikkönade makar omfattas av en faderskapspresumtion. En motsvarande presumtion finns inte för samkönade makar utan det föräldraskapet måste fastställas genom bekräftelse eller dom. För närvarande är ett lagförslag om en föräldraskapspresumtion för samkönade makar under utredning.

I ett försök att förstå skillnaderna mellan samkönade och olikkönade makar har de normativa strukturerna till grund för lagstiftningen analyserats. Analysen har utgått från Anna Christensens teori om normativa grundmönster. Teorin behandlar rättsregler förhållningssätt till underliggande normer i samhället och hur normerna påverkar rättsutvecklingen. I analysen har tre olika grundmönster utretts; barnets rätt till föräldrar, makens äganderätt till barnet och jämlikhet är tre intressen som har influerat föräldraskapslagstiftningen till vad den är idag. Beroende på hur stort genomslag mönstren har fått på rättsreglerna skyddar reglerna olika intressen. Arbetet innehåller ytterligare en analys som strävar efter att ge förklaring till varför individer, beroende på sexuell läggning och kön, behandlas olika i lagstiftningen. Analysen har utgått från queerteori med fokus på heteronormativitet och sexualitetens värdehierarki. Analysen visar hur normen om heterosexualitet utesluter avvikande grupper. Uteslutandet innebär bland annat att de avvikande grupperna behandlas som undantag från huvudregeln om heterosexualitet i lagstiftningen. (Less)
Abstract
The Swedish Parental Code has undergone extensive changes during the last century. Different forms of cohabitation have been regarded at a higher extent through the legislative development. The legislator has aimed at a more equal parental legislation. The goal has been to avoid all discrimination on the basis of sex and sexual orientation unless there is an important reason for the discriminatory legal rule. Despite the aim, there are still vast differences in the possibility of being recognized as a parent depending on the constellation of marriage. When a woman gives birth to a child whilst being married to a man there is a presumption of fatherhood. There is no equal rule of presumption for same sex spouses. A woman giving birth to a... (More)
The Swedish Parental Code has undergone extensive changes during the last century. Different forms of cohabitation have been regarded at a higher extent through the legislative development. The legislator has aimed at a more equal parental legislation. The goal has been to avoid all discrimination on the basis of sex and sexual orientation unless there is an important reason for the discriminatory legal rule. Despite the aim, there are still vast differences in the possibility of being recognized as a parent depending on the constellation of marriage. When a woman gives birth to a child whilst being married to a man there is a presumption of fatherhood. There is no equal rule of presumption for same sex spouses. A woman giving birth to a child becomes a mother automatically. Her spouse has to be declared a parent through confirmation or court ruling. At the moment there is a bill proposing a presumption of parenthood for same sex spouses.

In an attempt to explain the differences at hand, the normative structures underlying the legislation have been analyzed. The analysis has its starting-point in Anna Christensen’s theory of normative patterns. The theory discusses how legal rules relate to underlying norms in society and how norms influence the legislative development. The analysis is based on three normative patterns – the child’s right to its parents, equality and the husband’s entitlement to the child. All three normative patterns have had influence over the parenthood legislation. Depending on the degree of impact the different patterns have on the legal rules, the legal rules in turn protect different interests. Furthermore, the thesis includes an analysis aiming to explain why individuals, depending on sexual orientation and sex, are treated unequally by law. The analysis is based on queer theory with its main focus on heteronormativity. The analysis shows how heteronormativity excludes abnormal groups. The exclusion implies, among others, that homosexuality is considered an abnormal group that is treated as an exception from the general principle of heterosexuality. (Less)
Please use this url to cite or link to this publication:
author
Kristland, Anna LU
supervisor
organization
alternative title
Parenthood - is it a right for everyone? - A queer theoretical analysis of the parental legislation's normative structures
course
JURM02 20191
year
type
H3 - Professional qualifications (4 Years - )
subject
keywords
Familjerätt, Normativa grundmönster, Normative patterns, Family law, Queer theory, Queerteori, Heteronormativitet
language
Swedish
id
8976914
date added to LUP
2019-06-11 17:31:13
date last changed
2019-06-11 17:31:13
@misc{8976914,
  abstract     = {The Swedish Parental Code has undergone extensive changes during the last century. Different forms of cohabitation have been regarded at a higher extent through the legislative development. The legislator has aimed at a more equal parental legislation. The goal has been to avoid all discrimination on the basis of sex and sexual orientation unless there is an important reason for the discriminatory legal rule. Despite the aim, there are still vast differences in the possibility of being recognized as a parent depending on the constellation of marriage. When a woman gives birth to a child whilst being married to a man there is a presumption of fatherhood. There is no equal rule of presumption for same sex spouses. A woman giving birth to a child becomes a mother automatically. Her spouse has to be declared a parent through confirmation or court ruling. At the moment there is a bill proposing a presumption of parenthood for same sex spouses.

In an attempt to explain the differences at hand, the normative structures underlying the legislation have been analyzed. The analysis has its starting-point in Anna Christensen’s theory of normative patterns. The theory discusses how legal rules relate to underlying norms in society and how norms influence the legislative development. The analysis is based on three normative patterns – the child’s right to its parents, equality and the husband’s entitlement to the child. All three normative patterns have had influence over the parenthood legislation. Depending on the degree of impact the different patterns have on the legal rules, the legal rules in turn protect different interests. Furthermore, the thesis includes an analysis aiming to explain why individuals, depending on sexual orientation and sex, are treated unequally by law. The analysis is based on queer theory with its main focus on heteronormativity. The analysis shows how heteronormativity excludes abnormal groups. The exclusion implies, among others, that homosexuality is considered an abnormal group that is treated as an exception from the general principle of heterosexuality.},
  author       = {Kristland, Anna},
  keyword      = {Familjerätt,Normativa grundmönster,Normative patterns,Family law,Queer theory,Queerteori,Heteronormativitet},
  language     = {swe},
  note         = {Student Paper},
  title        = {Föräldraskapet – en rätt för alla? - En queerteoretisk analys av föräldraskapslagstiftningens normativa strukturer},
  year         = {2019},
}