Advanced

Rättsligt moderskap vid surrogatarrangemang - En analys ur ett barnrättsperspektiv

Nilsson, Linnea LU (2019) LAGF03 20191
Department of Law
Faculty of Law
Abstract (Swedish)
Denna uppsats syftar till att med en rättsdogmatisk metod undersöka hur fastställande av rättsligt föräldraskap förhåller sig till gränsöverskridande surrogatarrangemang. Vidare syftar uppsatsen även till att undersöka om ett vägrande att erkänna en utländsk dom som strider mot mater est-regeln är förenlig med principen om barnets bästa.

I svensk rätt är det enligt mater est-regeln alltid den kvinna som föder barnet som ska anses som barnets rättsliga moder. Mater est-regeln gäller oavsett om barnet har tillkommit genom ett surrogatarrangemang eller inte. Detta innebär att en tilltänkt moder som vill fastställa sitt rättsliga moderskap alltid måste adoptera barnet. Bestämmelserna som fastställer rättsligt föräldraskap är inte... (More)
Denna uppsats syftar till att med en rättsdogmatisk metod undersöka hur fastställande av rättsligt föräldraskap förhåller sig till gränsöverskridande surrogatarrangemang. Vidare syftar uppsatsen även till att undersöka om ett vägrande att erkänna en utländsk dom som strider mot mater est-regeln är förenlig med principen om barnets bästa.

I svensk rätt är det enligt mater est-regeln alltid den kvinna som föder barnet som ska anses som barnets rättsliga moder. Mater est-regeln gäller oavsett om barnet har tillkommit genom ett surrogatarrangemang eller inte. Detta innebär att en tilltänkt moder som vill fastställa sitt rättsliga moderskap alltid måste adoptera barnet. Bestämmelserna som fastställer rättsligt föräldraskap är inte anpassade för att reglera situationer som uppkommer efter ett surrogatarrangemang, vilket kan leda till att barnet som tillkommit genom arrangemanget riskerar att få olika rättsliga föräldrar i olika länder. Detta leder till en rättslig ovisshet för barnet, där ovissheten i vissa fall kan anses strida mot barnets rätt till privatliv enligt artikel 8 i Europakonventionen.

Europadomstolen har i praxis slagit fast att ett vägrande av en fördragsslutande stat att erkänna en utländsk dom där en genetisk tilltänkt fader har fastställts som barnets rättsliga fader strider mot barnets rätt till privatliv enligt artikel 8 i Europakonventionen, om både den genetiska tilltänkte fadern och barnet vill att domen ska erkännas fullt ut. I frågan om motsvarande gäller för en tilltänkt genetisk moder, i en situation där den tilltänkte fadern saknar genetiskt koppling till barnet, så blir slutsatsen att svenska domstolar och myndigheter troligtvis inte skulle erkänna en sådan utländsk dom som strider mot mater est-regeln. Vilket, med beaktande av Europadomstolens tidigare praxis, bör anses strida mot barnets bästa och barnets rätt till privatliv enligt artikel 8 i Europakonventionen. (Less)
Abstract
The aim of this study is to examine how legal parenthood is determined following transborder surrogacy arrangements. The study also aims to investigate whether a refusal to recognize a foreign judgment that contravenes the maternal rule in Swedish law is compatible with the principle of the best interests of the child.

The Swedish legislation states, according to the mater est-rule, that the woman who gives birth to a child always should be regarded as the child’s legal mother. The mater est-rule applies regardless of whether the child has been born from surrogacy or not. As such, an intended mother who wants to establish her legal motherhood always must adopt the child born from surrogacy. The Swedish rules on parenthood and how... (More)
The aim of this study is to examine how legal parenthood is determined following transborder surrogacy arrangements. The study also aims to investigate whether a refusal to recognize a foreign judgment that contravenes the maternal rule in Swedish law is compatible with the principle of the best interests of the child.

The Swedish legislation states, according to the mater est-rule, that the woman who gives birth to a child always should be regarded as the child’s legal mother. The mater est-rule applies regardless of whether the child has been born from surrogacy or not. As such, an intended mother who wants to establish her legal motherhood always must adopt the child born from surrogacy. The Swedish rules on parenthood and how legal parenthood is established are not intended to regulate situations that arise after surrogacy arrangement. The absence of these specific statutory provisions may result in children being born through surrogacy to have different legal parents in different countries. This leads to a legal uncertainty for the child, where in some cases the uncertainty can be considered contrary to the child's right to privacy under Article 8 of the ECHR.

The European Court of Justice has established through legal precedent that a refusal to recognize a foreign judgement where a genetically intended father has been established as the child's legal parent is contrary to the child's right to privacy under Article 8 of the ECHR, if both the intended father and the child wish the judgment to be fully recognized. Regarding whether or not same applies to an intended genetic mother, in a situation where the intended father lacks a genetic link to the child, the conclusion is that Swedish courts would probably not recognize such a foreign judgment that contravenes the mater est-rule. As such, when taking into account previous practice of the European Court of Justice, this should be considered contrary to the best interests of the child Article 8 of the ECHR. (Less)
Please use this url to cite or link to this publication:
author
Nilsson, Linnea LU
supervisor
organization
course
LAGF03 20191
year
type
M2 - Bachelor Degree
subject
keywords
familjerätt, internationell privaträtt, surrogatmoderskap, surrogatarrangemang, barnets bästa
language
Swedish
id
8977046
date added to LUP
2019-09-16 10:32:50
date last changed
2019-09-16 10:32:50
@misc{8977046,
  abstract     = {The aim of this study is to examine how legal parenthood is determined following transborder surrogacy arrangements. The study also aims to investigate whether a refusal to recognize a foreign judgment that contravenes the maternal rule in Swedish law is compatible with the principle of the best interests of the child. 
 
The Swedish legislation states, according to the mater est-rule, that the woman who gives birth to a child always should be regarded as the child’s legal mother. The mater est-rule applies regardless of whether the child has been born from surrogacy or not. As such, an intended mother who wants to establish her legal motherhood always must adopt the child born from surrogacy. The Swedish rules on parenthood and how legal parenthood is established are not intended to regulate situations that arise after surrogacy arrangement. The absence of these specific statutory provisions may result in children being born through surrogacy to have different legal parents in different countries. This leads to a legal uncertainty for the child, where in some cases the uncertainty can be considered contrary to the child's right to privacy under Article 8 of the ECHR. 
 
The European Court of Justice has established through legal precedent that a refusal to recognize a foreign judgement where a genetically intended father has been established as the child's legal parent is contrary to the child's right to privacy under Article 8 of the ECHR, if both the intended father and the child wish the judgment to be fully recognized. Regarding whether or not same applies to an intended genetic mother, in a situation where the intended father lacks a genetic link to the child, the conclusion is that Swedish courts would probably not recognize such a foreign judgment that contravenes the mater est-rule. As such, when taking into account previous practice of the European Court of Justice, this should be considered contrary to the best interests of the child Article 8 of the ECHR.},
  author       = {Nilsson, Linnea},
  keyword      = {familjerätt,internationell privaträtt,surrogatmoderskap,surrogatarrangemang,barnets bästa},
  language     = {swe},
  note         = {Student Paper},
  title        = {Rättsligt moderskap vid surrogatarrangemang - En analys ur ett barnrättsperspektiv},
  year         = {2019},
}