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Är hörsägensbevisning verkligen tillåten i Sverige? - En analys av bevisrättslig praxis i relation till anglosaxiska regler om bevisförbud

Månsson, Edwina LU (2019) JURM02 20191
Department of Law
Faculty of Law
Abstract (Swedish)
I enlighet med svensk bevisrätt är principen om den fria bevisprövningen starkt dominerande vid prövning i domstol. Principen innebär att det åligger parterna i ett mål att inför domstolen åberopa all den bevisning som finns att tillgå. Det åligger sedan domstolen att fritt, och utan större begränsningar, pröva och värdera den bevisning som parterna lagt fram. I motsats till den fria svenska modellen står den som genomsyrar bevisrätten i de anglosaxiska länderna, nämligen de formella reglerna kring bevisförbud. Bl.a. finns regler som förbjuder sådan bevisning som utgör hörsägen eller andrahandsuppgifter. Om ett åberopat bevis anses utgöra hörsägen, kommer förbudsreglerna leda till dess uteslutning ur domstolsprövningen, på grund av att det... (More)
I enlighet med svensk bevisrätt är principen om den fria bevisprövningen starkt dominerande vid prövning i domstol. Principen innebär att det åligger parterna i ett mål att inför domstolen åberopa all den bevisning som finns att tillgå. Det åligger sedan domstolen att fritt, och utan större begränsningar, pröva och värdera den bevisning som parterna lagt fram. I motsats till den fria svenska modellen står den som genomsyrar bevisrätten i de anglosaxiska länderna, nämligen de formella reglerna kring bevisförbud. Bl.a. finns regler som förbjuder sådan bevisning som utgör hörsägen eller andrahandsuppgifter. Om ett åberopat bevis anses utgöra hörsägen, kommer förbudsreglerna leda till dess uteslutning ur domstolsprövningen, på grund av att det anses otillåtet. Bevisningen anses vara Inadmissible.

Den anglosaxiska modellen med begräsningar genom bevisförbud, har trots dess frånvaro i den svenska regleringen nämnts och diskuterats i doktrin, och till viss del även i praxis. För svensk rätts del finns dock få förbud och legala bevisregler som begränsar den fria bevisprövningen. Idén om att låta parterna själva avgöra vilken bevisning som läggs fram vid domstolsprövningen, kan på många sätt framstå som ett rättvist och flexibelt tillvägagångssätt. Frågan är dock om principerna i alla lägen tillåts råda i praktiken, eller om viss bevisning värderas omotiverat lågt vid prövningen i domstol.

I denna uppsats kommer utredas om uppgifter som utgör hörsägen eller andrahandsuppgifter tas hänsyn till i praktiken, eller om sådan bevisning anses ha så lågt bevisvärde att domstolarna konstant utesluter eller bortser från den. Det sista alternativet skulle kunna anses strida mot principen om den fria bevisprövningen, och i sådana fall är det på sin plats att diskutera huruvida formella bevisförbud möjligtvis borde införas även i svensk bevisrätt. (Less)
Abstract
According to Swedish law, the Principle of the Free Presentation of Evidence dominates the judicial process in many ways. The meaning of the principle is that the parties in a trial decide what evidence should be admitted. When that is done it is up to the court to weigh the value of that very evidence, in accordance with the principle that gives the courts the ability of free valuation of all admitted evidence. In contrast to the free and very flexible Swedish model, the exclusion of illegal or unreliable evidence in a criminal procedure, also known as the Exclusionary Rules, has a very strong legal meaning in the Anglo-American countries. One example is the Hearsay Rule, which excludes all evidence that is considered hearsay, because of... (More)
According to Swedish law, the Principle of the Free Presentation of Evidence dominates the judicial process in many ways. The meaning of the principle is that the parties in a trial decide what evidence should be admitted. When that is done it is up to the court to weigh the value of that very evidence, in accordance with the principle that gives the courts the ability of free valuation of all admitted evidence. In contrast to the free and very flexible Swedish model, the exclusion of illegal or unreliable evidence in a criminal procedure, also known as the Exclusionary Rules, has a very strong legal meaning in the Anglo-American countries. One example is the Hearsay Rule, which excludes all evidence that is considered hearsay, because of its origin from a second hand source. That kind of evidence is not Admissible and it will be excluded from the court of law if none of the exceptions to the rule are actualized.

The Anglo-American Exclusionary Rules do not have an equivalent in the Swedish regulation, but the concept is discussed in the legal doctrine and even in Swedish case law to some extent. The idea of assigning the responsibility to the parties and giving them the power to decide on what evidence to admit may seem like a very flexible and fair approach. The question though withstands, whether this principle and rule is met in practice in Swedish courts. Or do the courts constantly seem to reduce the value of some kind of evidence, particularly the kind of evidence that are identified as Hearsay? This essay will investigate if Hearsay evidence or second hand information is at all considered in Swedish court rooms, or if the trial judges constantly decides to exclude or undervalue that kind of information. The second suggestion would challenge the principle of free examination of evidence, which is basically what the Swedish law of Evidence is based upon. In that case, it is in its place to argue whether the Anglo-American rules and its Exclusionary Canons should be introduced also in our Swedish procedure law. (Less)
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author
Månsson, Edwina LU
supervisor
organization
alternative title
Is Hearsay Evidence Really Allowed in Sweden? - An Analysis of Swedish Case Law in Relation to Anglo-American Rules of Evidence
course
JURM02 20191
year
type
H3 - Professional qualifications (4 Years - )
subject
keywords
allmän rättslära, jurisprudence, komparativ rätt, comparative law, processrätt, criminal procedure, bevisrätt, law of evidence, bevisrättsliga principer, rules of evidence
language
Swedish
id
8977182
date added to LUP
2019-06-18 13:49:59
date last changed
2019-06-18 13:49:59
@misc{8977182,
  abstract     = {According to Swedish law, the Principle of the Free Presentation of Evidence dominates the judicial process in many ways. The meaning of the principle is that the parties in a trial decide what evidence should be admitted. When that is done it is up to the court to weigh the value of that very evidence, in accordance with the principle that gives the courts the ability of free valuation of all admitted evidence. In contrast to the free and very flexible Swedish model, the exclusion of illegal or unreliable evidence in a criminal procedure, also known as the Exclusionary Rules, has a very strong legal meaning in the Anglo-American countries. One example is the Hearsay Rule, which excludes all evidence that is considered hearsay, because of its origin from a second hand source. That kind of evidence is not Admissible and it will be excluded from the court of law if none of the exceptions to the rule are actualized. 

The Anglo-American Exclusionary Rules do not have an equivalent in the Swedish regulation, but the concept is discussed in the legal doctrine and even in Swedish case law to some extent. The idea of assigning the responsibility to the parties and giving them the power to decide on what evidence to admit may seem like a very flexible and fair approach. The question though withstands, whether this principle and rule is met in practice in Swedish courts. Or do the courts constantly seem to reduce the value of some kind of evidence, particularly the kind of evidence that are identified as Hearsay? This essay will investigate if Hearsay evidence or second hand information is at all considered in Swedish court rooms, or if the trial judges constantly decides to exclude or undervalue that kind of information. The second suggestion would challenge the principle of free examination of evidence, which is basically what the Swedish law of Evidence is based upon. In that case, it is in its place to argue whether the Anglo-American rules and its Exclusionary Canons should be introduced also in our Swedish procedure law.},
  author       = {Månsson, Edwina},
  keyword      = {allmän rättslära,jurisprudence,komparativ rätt,comparative law,processrätt,criminal procedure,bevisrätt,law of evidence,bevisrättsliga principer,rules of evidence},
  language     = {swe},
  note         = {Student Paper},
  title        = {Är hörsägensbevisning verkligen tillåten i Sverige? - En analys av bevisrättslig praxis i relation till anglosaxiska regler om bevisförbud},
  year         = {2019},
}