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I ögat av en firestorm- en netnografisk studie om svenska parakrisers dynamik

Dovander, Johanna LU and Bergström, Lovisa (2019) SKDK11 20191
Department of Strategic Communication
Abstract
In Sweden, we increasingly face headlines where organizations are accused of inappropriate
statements, offending ads and unethical actions. These firestorms, which emerge without any
warnings, cause major challenges for organizations’ marketing communication. This thesis is
written within the field of crisis communication, with an aim to study the dynamics of
different Swedish paracrises. The research aimed to understand what happens when social
media users utilize their channels to express their dissatisfaction with organizations.
Furthermore we identified signs when a paracrisis tend to proceed to a complete crisis and
how organizations can communicate to avoid this transition. The aim was based on a
literature review that was... (More)
In Sweden, we increasingly face headlines where organizations are accused of inappropriate
statements, offending ads and unethical actions. These firestorms, which emerge without any
warnings, cause major challenges for organizations’ marketing communication. This thesis is
written within the field of crisis communication, with an aim to study the dynamics of
different Swedish paracrises. The research aimed to understand what happens when social
media users utilize their channels to express their dissatisfaction with organizations.
Furthermore we identified signs when a paracrisis tend to proceed to a complete crisis and
how organizations can communicate to avoid this transition. The aim was based on a
literature review that was compiled in this study, which showed that scientists are requesting
more research on digital firestorms and context oriented crisis communication. To reach the
aim, a netnographic method was used in order to investigate the paracrises of four Swedish
organizations’, whose ads have caused negative reactions on social media. Subsequently the
empiricism was contextualized by essential concepts, as well as dominant and recently
produced theories within the field of crisis communication. Additionally four communication
experts were interviewed to enable deeper discussion and conclusions. The result, based on
the analysis and the interviews, showed that criticism from stakeholders always is legitimate -
regardless its type - hence it always needs to be managed respectfully. Furthermore, we
concluded that a merged firestorm which occurs on one platform, represented by stakeholders
from an honor- and victimhood culture, increase the risk that a paracrisis develops into a
complete ciris. Those paracrises require a modification strategy to decrease the risk of
damage, unless the ads are in line with the core values of the organization. Additionally, we
drew the conclusion that organizations cannot serve all stakeholders with the same approach,
as different moral cultures require different approaches. (Less)
Abstract (Swedish)
I Sverige möts vi allt oftare av rubriker om organisationer som hamnat i blåsväder på grund
av o lämpliga uttalanden, kränkande reklam eller oetiskt handlande. Dessa firestorms, som
ofta uppstår utan förvarning på nätet, medför stora utmaningar för organisationers
marknadskommunikationsavdelningar. Denna studie är skriven inom fältet för
kriskommunikation och har ämnat att studera dynamiken inom svenska parakriser, samt
undersöka vad som händer när sociala medieanvändare använder sina kanaler för att uttrycka
missnöjdhet gentemot organisationer. I syftet ingick även att identifiera tecken på när en
parakris tenderar att övergå till en fullbordad kris och hur organisationer kan kommunicera
för att undvika övergången. Syftet... (More)
I Sverige möts vi allt oftare av rubriker om organisationer som hamnat i blåsväder på grund
av o lämpliga uttalanden, kränkande reklam eller oetiskt handlande. Dessa firestorms, som
ofta uppstår utan förvarning på nätet, medför stora utmaningar för organisationers
marknadskommunikationsavdelningar. Denna studie är skriven inom fältet för
kriskommunikation och har ämnat att studera dynamiken inom svenska parakriser, samt
undersöka vad som händer när sociala medieanvändare använder sina kanaler för att uttrycka
missnöjdhet gentemot organisationer. I syftet ingick även att identifiera tecken på när en
parakris tenderar att övergå till en fullbordad kris och hur organisationer kan kommunicera
för att undvika övergången. Syftet baserades på en litteraturöversikt av det tidigare
forskningsfältet, som visade att mer forskning kring digitala firestorms samt
kontextorienterad kriskommunikation efterfrågas. För att möjliggöra denna studie har en
netnografisk metod använts där vi undersökt fyra svenska organisationers parakriser vars
reklambilder väckt anstöt på sociala medier. Därpå kontextualiserades empirin utifrån
väsentliga begrepp samt dominerande och nytillkomna teorier inom forskningsfältet
strategisk kommunikation. Empirin kompletterades med professionella uttalanden från fyra
kommunikationsexperter som möjliggjorde ett stöd för analysens slutsatser. Utifrån analysen
och diskussionen drogs slutsatsen att intressenternas kritik alltid är legitim, oavsett om den
baseras på personliga åsikter eller fakta, och den bör därför alltid hanteras med största
möjliga respekt. Vidare drogs slutsatsen att ett fokuserat drev som uppstår på samma
plattform och representeras av intressenter med en heders- och offerkultur, tenderar att övergå
i en fullbordad kris. I dessa drev visade resultatet att parakrisen kräver en förändringsstrategi
för att minska potentiell skada, med undantag för om publiceringen går i linje med
organisationens värderingar. Slutligen kunde vi utifrån analysen samt intervjuerna konstatera
att organisationer omöjligt kan respondera till alla intressenter på samma sätt då olika
moralkulturer kräver olika tillvägagångssätt. (Less)
Please use this url to cite or link to this publication:
author
Dovander, Johanna LU and Bergström, Lovisa
supervisor
organization
course
SKDK11 20191
year
type
M2 - Bachelor Degree
subject
keywords
strategic communication, crisis communication, public relations, paracrisis, firestorm, social media, crisis management, moral cultures, victimhood culture, strategisk kommunikation, kriskommunikation, parakris, sociala medier, krishantering, moralkulturer, offerkultur
language
Swedish
id
8978448
date added to LUP
2019-06-05 16:49:09
date last changed
2019-06-05 16:49:09
@misc{8978448,
  abstract     = {In Sweden, we increasingly face headlines where organizations are accused of inappropriate
statements, offending ads and unethical actions. These firestorms, which emerge without any
warnings, cause major challenges for organizations’ marketing communication. This thesis is
written within the field of crisis communication, with an aim to study the dynamics of
different Swedish paracrises. The research aimed to understand what happens when social
media users utilize their channels to express their dissatisfaction with organizations.
Furthermore we identified signs when a paracrisis tend to proceed to a complete crisis and
how organizations can communicate to avoid this transition. The aim was based on a
literature review that was compiled in this study, which showed that scientists are requesting
more research on digital firestorms and context oriented crisis communication. To reach the
aim, a netnographic method was used in order to investigate the paracrises of four Swedish
organizations’, whose ads have caused negative reactions on social media. Subsequently the
empiricism was contextualized by essential concepts, as well as dominant and recently
produced theories within the field of crisis communication. Additionally four communication
experts were interviewed to enable deeper discussion and conclusions. The result, based on
the analysis and the interviews, showed that criticism from stakeholders always is legitimate -
regardless its type - hence it always needs to be managed respectfully. Furthermore, we
concluded that a merged firestorm which occurs on one platform, represented by stakeholders
from an honor- and victimhood culture, increase the risk that a paracrisis develops into a
complete ciris. Those paracrises require a modification strategy to decrease the risk of
damage, unless the ads are in line with the core values of the organization. Additionally, we
drew the conclusion that organizations cannot serve all stakeholders with the same approach,
as different moral cultures require different approaches.},
  author       = {Dovander, Johanna and Bergström, Lovisa},
  keyword      = {strategic communication,crisis communication,public relations,paracrisis,firestorm,social media,crisis management,moral cultures,victimhood culture,strategisk kommunikation,kriskommunikation,parakris,sociala medier,krishantering,moralkulturer,offerkultur},
  language     = {swe},
  note         = {Student Paper},
  title        = {I ögat av en firestorm- en netnografisk studie om svenska parakrisers dynamik},
  year         = {2019},
}