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Polisens våldsanvändning - Om gränserna mellan tillåtet och otillåtet våld mot enskilda

Nilsson, Kevin LU (2019) LAGF03 20192
Department of Law
Faculty of Law
Abstract (Swedish)
Den 2 augusti 2018 sköts en ung man ihjäl av polis i centrala Stockholm. Skottlossningen var väldigt dramatisk och skulle senare visa sig bero på ett antal missförstånd. Härigenom aktualiserades emellertid än en gång debatten om tillåtet och otillåtet våld från polisens sida. Vid en genomgång av statistik över dödsskjutningar av polis visar det sig också att antalet ökat de senaste decennierna.

Med utgångspunkt i det sagda syftar denna framställning till att utreda rättsläget avseende polisiär våldsanvändning. Tanken är att få svar på frågor kring under vilka omständigheter som polisen får använda våld mot enskilda, samt under vilka omständigheter polisen får lov att använda skjutvapen mot enskilda.

Detta har gjorts genom att... (More)
Den 2 augusti 2018 sköts en ung man ihjäl av polis i centrala Stockholm. Skottlossningen var väldigt dramatisk och skulle senare visa sig bero på ett antal missförstånd. Härigenom aktualiserades emellertid än en gång debatten om tillåtet och otillåtet våld från polisens sida. Vid en genomgång av statistik över dödsskjutningar av polis visar det sig också att antalet ökat de senaste decennierna.

Med utgångspunkt i det sagda syftar denna framställning till att utreda rättsläget avseende polisiär våldsanvändning. Tanken är att få svar på frågor kring under vilka omständigheter som polisen får använda våld mot enskilda, samt under vilka omständigheter polisen får lov att använda skjutvapen mot enskilda.

Detta har gjorts genom att kritiskt granska gällande rätt ur ett rättssäkerhetsperspektiv för att se om den lever upp till legalitetsprincipens krav på förutsebarhet. I analysen av gällande rätt har det också varit nödvändigt att utreda vilket förhållande som brottsbalken och polislagen har till varandra. Härvid har även ett antal rättsfall granskats, men bristen på vägledande prejudikat har gjort sig särskilt märkbar i sammanhanget, varför de till största delen är exemplifierande.

De slutsatser som har kunnat dras är följande. I svensk rätt finns ett grundlagsstadgat skydd för den kroppsliga integriteten i regeringsformen och europakonventionen som gäller som lag. Undantag från denna har gjorts i framför allt polislagen och brottsbalken samt skjutkungörelsen som bemyndigar polisiär våldsanvändning och skjutvapenanvändning under vissa omständigheter

Det har dock inte gått att säkert säga när svensk polis får använda våld respektive skjutvapen, men vissa generella slutsatser har kunnat dras om när så får ske. Vidare har även slutsatsen dragits att det till stor del saknas vägledande prejudikat på området samt att det råder oenighet i doktrin angående förhållandet mellan brottsbalken och polislagen. Sammantaget får lagstiftningen därför anses brista i förutsebarhet. (Less)
Abstract
On August 2nd 2018, police shot and killed a young man in central Stockholm. It would later be shown that this had been due to a cluster of misunderstandings but none the less it sparked a national debate about police use of force and its limits. Moreover, statistics show that in the last three decades, the use of deadly force by police have risen.

With this in mind, the purpose of this paper has been to clarify the legal position of police use of force as well as deadly force in swedish law. It aims to examine under what circumstances police have the right to use force in general, as well as under what circumstances police have the right to use deadly force, as well as its limits.
This has been done by critically examining the swedish... (More)
On August 2nd 2018, police shot and killed a young man in central Stockholm. It would later be shown that this had been due to a cluster of misunderstandings but none the less it sparked a national debate about police use of force and its limits. Moreover, statistics show that in the last three decades, the use of deadly force by police have risen.

With this in mind, the purpose of this paper has been to clarify the legal position of police use of force as well as deadly force in swedish law. It aims to examine under what circumstances police have the right to use force in general, as well as under what circumstances police have the right to use deadly force, as well as its limits.
This has been done by critically examining the swedish legislation with the legality principle in mind in order to assess its predictability. In order to do so, it has also been necessary to examine the relationship between the swedish Police Act and the Penal Code, as well as the current case law regarding police use of force.
The conclusions, based on this, is the following. The swedish constitution guarantees protection against bodily harm, and the legislation on police use of force and police use of deadly force are exemptions from it. Because of this, the use of force has to be in compliance with the legality principle which requires a certain amaount of predictability.

It has, however, not been possible to say precisely when police is allowed to use force or deadly force, but some general principles for application do exist. However, the predictability of this is seriously compromised by the fact that there is a lack of precedent in the case law as well as the fact that the relationship between the Police Act and the Penal Code regarding application is not entirely clear. (Less)
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author
Nilsson, Kevin LU
supervisor
organization
course
LAGF03 20192
year
type
M2 - Bachelor Degree
subject
keywords
förvaltningsrätt, administrative law, straffrätt, criminal law, polisiär våldsanvändning, police use of force
language
Swedish
id
9000060
date added to LUP
2020-04-09 13:23:59
date last changed
2020-04-09 13:23:59
@misc{9000060,
  abstract     = {On August 2nd 2018, police shot and killed a young man in central Stockholm. It would later be shown that this had been due to a cluster of misunderstandings but none the less it sparked a national debate about police use of force and its limits. Moreover, statistics show that in the last three decades, the use of deadly force by police have risen.

With this in mind, the purpose of this paper has been to clarify the legal position of police use of force as well as deadly force in swedish law. It aims to examine under what circumstances police have the right to use force in general, as well as under what circumstances police have the right to use deadly force, as well as its limits.
This has been done by critically examining the swedish legislation with the legality principle in mind in order to assess its predictability. In order to do so, it has also been necessary to examine the relationship between the swedish Police Act and the Penal Code, as well as the current case law regarding police use of force.
The conclusions, based on this, is the following. The swedish constitution guarantees protection against bodily harm, and the legislation on police use of force and police use of deadly force are exemptions from it. Because of this, the use of force has to be in compliance with the legality principle which requires a certain amaount of predictability.

It has, however, not been possible to say precisely when police is allowed to use force or deadly force, but some general principles for application do exist. However, the predictability of this is seriously compromised by the fact that there is a lack of precedent in the case law as well as the fact that the relationship between the Police Act and the Penal Code regarding application is not entirely clear.},
  author       = {Nilsson, Kevin},
  keyword      = {förvaltningsrätt,administrative law,straffrätt,criminal law,polisiär våldsanvändning,police use of force},
  language     = {swe},
  note         = {Student Paper},
  title        = {Polisens våldsanvändning - Om gränserna mellan tillåtet och otillåtet våld mot enskilda},
  year         = {2019},
}