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Anonyma vittnesmål - Rättssäkerhet för vem?

Linné, Johanna LU (2019) LAGF03 20192
Department of Law
Faculty of Law
Abstract
In Sweden, there is a general duty to testify, which means that a called witness has an obligation to testify. A witness cannot avoid the obligation to testify as long as any of the exception rules are not applicable. To be afraid to testify because the witness has been exposed to threats or violence is not a valid reason not to testify. In cases where a called witness does not satisfactorily fulfil his or her testimony, the court has the opportunity to decide on measures such as
injunction and arrest. The duty of witnessing thus, constitutes a far-reaching obligation for the individual witness. Where witnesses witness organized crime, witnesses may be subject to reprisals for the purpose of silencing the witness. Organized crime is a... (More)
In Sweden, there is a general duty to testify, which means that a called witness has an obligation to testify. A witness cannot avoid the obligation to testify as long as any of the exception rules are not applicable. To be afraid to testify because the witness has been exposed to threats or violence is not a valid reason not to testify. In cases where a called witness does not satisfactorily fulfil his or her testimony, the court has the opportunity to decide on measures such as
injunction and arrest. The duty of witnessing thus, constitutes a far-reaching obligation for the individual witness. Where witnesses witness organized crime, witnesses may be subject to reprisals for the purpose of silencing the witness. Organized crime is a current topic that is regularly highlighted in the media. In connection with debates about organized crime, the problems of getting witnesses to organized crime to dare to testify. It is also in connection with these discussions that anonymous testimonies are sometimes mentioned. Anonymous testimony is a controversial topic in Sweden, because Anonymous testimony can mean a restriction on the defendant's right to legal security. RB states that a defendant must have the right to the party's transparency and in EKMR, among other things. An accused must be given the opportunity to question the witnesses. Anonymous testimony may result in the defendant losing those rights in EKMR and RB. The European Court of Justice has stated in several decisions that anonymous testimony may be allowed in certain situations. In Sweden, there is no way for exposed witnesses to testify
anonymously. However, there are other measures available to protect
vulnerable witnesses. These measures include, inter alia, restraining orders, public accounting measures and especial personal safety measures.

The purpose of this thesis is to illustrate and analyse whether it is justified to introduce anonymous testimonies with regard to the witness's legal certainty. The thesis is limited to dealing only with the fact that anonymous witnesses are justified in cases where a random witness witnesses organized crime. The analysis analyses and discusses the duty of testimony, the protections available to threatened witnesses, and the European Court's approach to Anonymous testimony. Taking into account the approach of the European Court of Justice to
anonymous testimony and the need for exposed witnesses for effective and
reasonable protection. From what is stated in the conclusion, I believe it is justified to introduce anonymous testimonies. (Less)
Abstract (Swedish)
I Sverige råder allmän vittnesplikt vilket innebär att ett kallat vittne har en skyldighet att vittna. Ett vittne kan således inte undvika vittnesplikten så länge någon av undantagsreglerna inte är tillämpliga. Att vara rädd för att vittna på grund av att vittnet blivit utsatt för hot eller våld är inte en giltig anledning till att inte vittna. För de fall ett kallat vittne inte fullgör sin vittnesplikt på ett tillfredsställande sätt har domstolen möjlighet att besluta om åtgärder såsom vitesföreläggande och häktning. Vittnesplikten innebär således en långtgående skyldighet för det enskilda vittnet. I de fall vittnen bevittnar organiserad brottslighet kan det innebära att vittnen blir utsatta för repressalier i syfte att tysta vittnet. Den... (More)
I Sverige råder allmän vittnesplikt vilket innebär att ett kallat vittne har en skyldighet att vittna. Ett vittne kan således inte undvika vittnesplikten så länge någon av undantagsreglerna inte är tillämpliga. Att vara rädd för att vittna på grund av att vittnet blivit utsatt för hot eller våld är inte en giltig anledning till att inte vittna. För de fall ett kallat vittne inte fullgör sin vittnesplikt på ett tillfredsställande sätt har domstolen möjlighet att besluta om åtgärder såsom vitesföreläggande och häktning. Vittnesplikten innebär således en långtgående skyldighet för det enskilda vittnet. I de fall vittnen bevittnar organiserad brottslighet kan det innebära att vittnen blir utsatta för repressalier i syfte att tysta vittnet. Den organiserade brottsligheten är ett aktuellt ämne som med jämna mellanrum lyfts fram i media. I samband med debatten om den organiserade brottsligheten diskuteras problematiken med att få vittnen till organiserad brottslighet att våga vittna. Det är också i samband med dessa
diskussioner som anonyma vittnesmål ibland kommer på tal. Anonyma
vittnesmål är ett kontroversiellt ämne i Sverige eftersom anonyma vittnesmål kan innebära en inskränkning i den tilltalades rätt till rättssäkerhet. I RB stadgas att en tilltalad ska ha rätt till partsinsyn och i EKMR stadgas bland annat att en anklagad ska ges möjlighet att förhöra eller låta förhöra vittnen som åberopas emot honom. Anonyma vittnesmål kan medföra att den tilltalade mister dessa rättigheter i EKMR och RB. Europadomstolen har vid flera avgöranden anfört att anonyma vittnesmål kan tillåtas under vissa situationer. I Sverige finns det
inga möjligheter för utsatta vittnen att vittna anonymt. Däremot finns det andra åtgärder att tillgå för att skydda utsatta vittnen. Dessa åtgärder består bland annat i kontaktförbud, folkbokföringsåtgärder och särskilt personsäkerhetsarbete.

Uppsatsens syfte är att belysa och analysera om det är motiverat att införa anonyma vittnesmål med hänsyn till vittnens rättssäkerhet. Uppsatsen avgränsar sig till att enbart behandla huruvida anonyma vittnesmål är motiverat i de fall ett slumpvittne bevittnar organiserad brottslighet. I analysen analyseras och diskuteras vittnesplikten, de skydd som finns att tillgå för hotade vittnen samt Europadomstolens inställning till anonyma vittnesmål. Med beaktande av Europadomstolens inställning till anonyma vittnesmål och utsatta vittnens behov av ett effektivt och rimligt skydd anser jag det i slutsatsen vara motiverat att införa anonyma vittnesmål. (Less)
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author
Linné, Johanna LU
supervisor
organization
course
LAGF03 20192
year
type
M2 - Bachelor Degree
subject
keywords
processrätt, straffrätt, anonyma vittnesmål
language
Swedish
id
9000125
date added to LUP
2020-04-11 16:13:48
date last changed
2020-04-11 16:13:48
@misc{9000125,
  abstract     = {In Sweden, there is a general duty to testify, which means that a called witness has an obligation to testify. A witness cannot avoid the obligation to testify as long as any of the exception rules are not applicable. To be afraid to testify because the witness has been exposed to threats or violence is not a valid reason not to testify. In cases where a called witness does not satisfactorily fulfil his or her testimony, the court has the opportunity to decide on measures such as
injunction and arrest. The duty of witnessing thus, constitutes a far-reaching obligation for the individual witness. Where witnesses witness organized crime, witnesses may be subject to reprisals for the purpose of silencing the witness. Organized crime is a current topic that is regularly highlighted in the media. In connection with debates about organized crime, the problems of getting witnesses to organized crime to dare to testify. It is also in connection with these discussions that anonymous testimonies are sometimes mentioned. Anonymous testimony is a controversial topic in Sweden, because Anonymous testimony can mean a restriction on the defendant's right to legal security. RB states that a defendant must have the right to the party's transparency and in EKMR, among other things. An accused must be given the opportunity to question the witnesses. Anonymous testimony may result in the defendant losing those rights in EKMR and RB. The European Court of Justice has stated in several decisions that anonymous testimony may be allowed in certain situations. In Sweden, there is no way for exposed witnesses to testify
anonymously. However, there are other measures available to protect
vulnerable witnesses. These measures include, inter alia, restraining orders, public accounting measures and especial personal safety measures.

The purpose of this thesis is to illustrate and analyse whether it is justified to introduce anonymous testimonies with regard to the witness's legal certainty. The thesis is limited to dealing only with the fact that anonymous witnesses are justified in cases where a random witness witnesses organized crime. The analysis analyses and discusses the duty of testimony, the protections available to threatened witnesses, and the European Court's approach to Anonymous testimony. Taking into account the approach of the European Court of Justice to
anonymous testimony and the need for exposed witnesses for effective and
reasonable protection. From what is stated in the conclusion, I believe it is justified to introduce anonymous testimonies.},
  author       = {Linné, Johanna},
  keyword      = {processrätt,straffrätt,anonyma vittnesmål},
  language     = {swe},
  note         = {Student Paper},
  title        = {Anonyma vittnesmål - Rättssäkerhet för vem?},
  year         = {2019},
}