Advanced

Intresseledamöter utan intressen? - Om intresseledamöters förenlighet med Europakonventionen och rätten till en opartisk domstol

Petersson, Clara LU (2019) JURM02 20192
Department of Law
Faculty of Law
Abstract
The Labour Court and the rent tribunals are specialized judicial bodies where so called interest members act as judges alongside legally trained judges. Interest members are appointed on proposal from central labour and rental market organizations. While interest members can contribute to the adjudication in various ways, their participation can also raise questions about their impartiality with regard to their respective organizations.

The purpose of this thesis is to examine the development of how the interest members are viewed since the establishment of the Labour Court and the rent tribunals. The purpose is also to examine whether the participation of interest members is compatible with the right to an impartial tribunal and if and... (More)
The Labour Court and the rent tribunals are specialized judicial bodies where so called interest members act as judges alongside legally trained judges. Interest members are appointed on proposal from central labour and rental market organizations. While interest members can contribute to the adjudication in various ways, their participation can also raise questions about their impartiality with regard to their respective organizations.

The purpose of this thesis is to examine the development of how the interest members are viewed since the establishment of the Labour Court and the rent tribunals. The purpose is also to examine whether the participation of interest members is compatible with the right to an impartial tribunal and if and how the rules governing the interest members should be reformed to better comply with the right to an impartial tribunal.

The examination has shown that the interest members were viewed in a generally positive way when the Labour Court and the rent tribunals were established and that the interest members’ knowledge and contribution to the public’s and the parties’ confidence in the judicial bodies were emphasised. In the 1980’s, questions of impartiality gained more attention and with regard to the interest members, the Langborger case was of great importance. In that case, the European Court of Human Rights established that the participation of interest members does not in itself constitute a violation of the right to an impartial tribunal. However, that could be the case when the balance of interests, inherent in the composition in most cases, is upset. Thereafter, the court
has reiterated the arguments made in the Langborger case. As to the internal Swedish law, the composition of the rent tribunals was partly adjusted after the Langborger case, but otherwise, the rules regarding the interest members were basically intact. However, there was a change in the way the interest members were viewed and there was an increased awareness of the question of impartiality in relation to the interest members. Furthermore, in Sweden, the scope of application of the rules regarding bias in Swedish law has increased, which is mostly a result of the European Convention on Human Rights playing a more important role when assessing bias in cases according to Swedish law. Although questions of impartiality generally have become more important,
this development has barely affected the interest members.

The thesis concludes that the arguments put forward by the court in the Langborger case still apply, that the European Convention does not generally prohibit the participation of interest members and that Swedish law probably complies with the European Convention with regard to the interest members. Notwithstanding, there are measures that can be taken to better comply with the right to an impartial tribunal. The proposals presented in this thesis are for instance to abolish the interest members, to increase the possibility to change the composition due to bias against the interest members and to increase the interest members’ independence. (Less)
Abstract (Swedish)
I Arbetsdomstolen och hyresnämnderna, som är specialiserade dömande organ, förekommer intresseledamöter jämte lagfarna ledamöter. Intresseledamöter utses efter förslag från intresseorganisationer på arbets- och hyresmarknadsområdet.
Trots att intresseledamöterna på flera sätt kan anses gynna den
dömande verksamheten ger deras medverkan även upphov till frågor om hur
opartiska de är i förhållande till intressena hos de organisationer de tillhör.

Syftet med denna uppsats är att undersöka hur synen på intresseledamöter har utvecklats sedan Arbetsdomstolens och hyresnämndernas införande samt huruvida förekomsten av intresseledamöter är förenlig med rätten till en opartisk domstol. Syftet är även att besvara frågan om reglerna bör ändras... (More)
I Arbetsdomstolen och hyresnämnderna, som är specialiserade dömande organ, förekommer intresseledamöter jämte lagfarna ledamöter. Intresseledamöter utses efter förslag från intresseorganisationer på arbets- och hyresmarknadsområdet.
Trots att intresseledamöterna på flera sätt kan anses gynna den
dömande verksamheten ger deras medverkan även upphov till frågor om hur
opartiska de är i förhållande till intressena hos de organisationer de tillhör.

Syftet med denna uppsats är att undersöka hur synen på intresseledamöter har utvecklats sedan Arbetsdomstolens och hyresnämndernas införande samt huruvida förekomsten av intresseledamöter är förenlig med rätten till en opartisk domstol. Syftet är även att besvara frågan om reglerna bör ändras för att i högre grad uppfylla rätten till en opartisk domstol och i så fall på vilket sätt.

Utredningen visar att synen på intresseledamöterna vid införandet av Arbetsdomstolen och hyresnämnderna var genomgående positiv och att fördelarna med intresseledamöterna, nämligen att de bidrar med sakkunskap och förtroende för rättskipningen, betonades. Frågor om jäv och opartiskhet började bli mer uppmärksammade under 1980-talet och avseende intresseledamöterna var Europadomstolens dom i Langborgermålet av avgörande betydelse. I domen fastslog Europadomstolen att förekomsten av intresseledamöter inte i sig strider mot rätten till en opartisk domstol, men att så kan vara fallet i vissa situationer där intressebalansen, som vanligtvis finns, rubbas. Europadomstolen
har sedan upprepat de uttalanden som den gjorde i Langborgermålet. Efter
domen i Langborgermålet ändrades sammansättningsreglerna för bland annat
hyresnämnderna i vissa fall, men i övrigt var sammansättningsreglerna i princip intakta och fördelarna med intresseledamöternas medverkan ansågs överväga nackdelarna. Medvetenheten kring att deras medverkan ibland kan vara problematisk ökade dock efter domen.

Generellt sett har den svenska rättsutvecklingen inneburit att tillämpningsområdet för jävsbestämmelserna i rättegångsbalken har utvidgats och det beror på att Europakonventionen och praxis kring den numera ska beaktas vid jävsbedömningen.
Trots att frågor om jäv blivit allt mer uppmärksammade har
reglerna avseende intresseledamöter i princip inte genomgått några större
ändringar sedan ändringarna som gjordes efter Langborgerdomen.

Slutsatsen är att de resonemang som fördes i Langborgerdomen förmodligen
fortfarande gäller, att Europakonventionen inte uppställer något generellt hinder mot att intresseledamöter deltar i dömande uppgifter och att svensk rätt förmodligen överensstämmer med Europakonventionen i detta avseende. Det finns dock vissa förbättringsområden och åtgärder som kan vidtas för att öka opartiskheten. Förslag som diskuteras i uppsatsen är bland annat att avskaffa intresseledamöterna helt, att införa fler möjligheter att ändra sammansättningsreglerna
på grund av jäv mot intresseledamöterna och att öka intresseledamöternas
självständighet. (Less)
Please use this url to cite or link to this publication:
author
Petersson, Clara LU
supervisor
organization
alternative title
Interest members without interests? - On interest members’ compatibility with the European Convention on Human Rights and the right to an impartial tribunal
course
JURM02 20192
year
type
H3 - Professional qualifications (4 Years - )
subject
keywords
Processrätt, Jäv, Opartiskhet, Intresseledamöter
language
Swedish
id
9000337
date added to LUP
2020-01-31 17:19:06
date last changed
2020-01-31 17:19:06
@misc{9000337,
  abstract     = {The Labour Court and the rent tribunals are specialized judicial bodies where so called interest members act as judges alongside legally trained judges. Interest members are appointed on proposal from central labour and rental market organizations. While interest members can contribute to the adjudication in various ways, their participation can also raise questions about their impartiality with regard to their respective organizations.

The purpose of this thesis is to examine the development of how the interest members are viewed since the establishment of the Labour Court and the rent tribunals. The purpose is also to examine whether the participation of interest members is compatible with the right to an impartial tribunal and if and how the rules governing the interest members should be reformed to better comply with the right to an impartial tribunal.

The examination has shown that the interest members were viewed in a generally positive way when the Labour Court and the rent tribunals were established and that the interest members’ knowledge and contribution to the public’s and the parties’ confidence in the judicial bodies were emphasised. In the 1980’s, questions of impartiality gained more attention and with regard to the interest members, the Langborger case was of great importance. In that case, the European Court of Human Rights established that the participation of interest members does not in itself constitute a violation of the right to an impartial tribunal. However, that could be the case when the balance of interests, inherent in the composition in most cases, is upset. Thereafter, the court
has reiterated the arguments made in the Langborger case. As to the internal Swedish law, the composition of the rent tribunals was partly adjusted after the Langborger case, but otherwise, the rules regarding the interest members were basically intact. However, there was a change in the way the interest members were viewed and there was an increased awareness of the question of impartiality in relation to the interest members. Furthermore, in Sweden, the scope of application of the rules regarding bias in Swedish law has increased, which is mostly a result of the European Convention on Human Rights playing a more important role when assessing bias in cases according to Swedish law. Although questions of impartiality generally have become more important,
this development has barely affected the interest members.

The thesis concludes that the arguments put forward by the court in the Langborger case still apply, that the European Convention does not generally prohibit the participation of interest members and that Swedish law probably complies with the European Convention with regard to the interest members. Notwithstanding, there are measures that can be taken to better comply with the right to an impartial tribunal. The proposals presented in this thesis are for instance to abolish the interest members, to increase the possibility to change the composition due to bias against the interest members and to increase the interest members’ independence.},
  author       = {Petersson, Clara},
  keyword      = {Processrätt,Jäv,Opartiskhet,Intresseledamöter},
  language     = {swe},
  note         = {Student Paper},
  title        = {Intresseledamöter utan intressen? - Om intresseledamöters förenlighet med Europakonventionen och rätten till en opartisk domstol},
  year         = {2019},
}